Shortia galacifolia - Torr. & Gray
Oconee-bells
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Shortia galacifolia Torr. & Gray (TSN 23800)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149979
Element Code: PDDIA04010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Diapensiales Diapensiaceae Shortia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Shortia galacifolia
Taxonomic Comments: This is probably the most famous of the "Appalachian lost plants" - plants that were collected once and then, despite painstaking reconstructions of the original collector's route, and intensive searching, not relocated for years. In this case, nearly 100 years past between the time the first J. K. Small specimen was taken in the late 1700s, and the rediscovery of the species in 1886. The nearest relatives of this distinctive North American Shortia are in eastern Asia.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Oct2015
Global Status Last Changed: 15Oct2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to the southern Appalachian Mountains. The species has lost populations in the past due to horticultural collection, and multiple dam construction projects; the long-looked-for type locality is now under the waters of Lake Jocassee in South Carolina. Despite its very local distribution, the species is abundant at many of the remaining sites.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (S1), North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S3), Tennessee (SNA), Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia (Weakley 2002).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by horticultural collecting, logging, and exotic plants such as Japanese honeysuckle (Patrick et al. 1995).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia (Weakley 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, NC, SC, TNexotic, VAexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Rabun (13241)
NC Avery (37011)*, Jackson (37099)*, Macon (37113), McDowell (37111), Transylvania (37175)
SC Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073), Pickens (45077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+, Saluda (03050109)+, Seneca (03060101)+, Tugaloo (03060102)+
06 Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A stemless perennial herb that forms a ground cover of round, waxy green leaves that persist on the plant all year, turning a reddish-bronze color in winter. Nodding, bell-shaped, white or pink flowers bloom for about a week in early spring.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Shady woods and stream banks with rich, humus-enriched soils. Most abundant on deep ravine slopes where cool, humid conditions prevail. Often in rhododendron thickets within mixed hardwood stands.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Oct2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K.(1996), rev. A. Olivero (2003), rev. A. Treher (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Brooks, M. 1965. The Appalachians. In M. Brooks, The Appalachians. Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  • Cooper, J.E., S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderburg (eds.). 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 444 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Jones, S.B., Jr., and N.C. Coile. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Dept. Botany, Univ. Georgia, Athens. 230 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Kruckeberg, A.R., and D. Rabinowitz. 1985. Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. Ecological Systems 16: 447-479.

  • McCollum, J.L., and D.R. Ettman. 1987. Georgia's protected plants. Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources, and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Social Circle, GA. 64 pp.

  • Patrick, T.S., J.R. Allison, and G.A. Krakow. 1995. Protected plants of Georgia: an information manual on plants designated by the State of Georgia as endangered, threatened, rare, or unusual. Georgia Dept. Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division, Georgia Natural Heritage Program, Social Circle, Georgia. 218 pp + appendices.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Sutter, R.D., V. Frantz, and K.A. McCarthy. 1988. Atlas of rare and endangered plant species in North Carolina. North Carolina Dept. Agriculture, Plant Protection Section, Conservation Program, Raleigh, North Carolina. 174 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Conference of the parties to the convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora (CITES); amendments to appendices I and II adopted by the conference of the party to CITES at its fourteenth regular meeting (CoP14). Federal Register 72(155):45260-45264.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2002. July 19-last update. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of July 19, 2002. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/weakley_flora/default.htm. Accessed 2003, April 11.

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