Senecio jacobaea - L.
Tansy Ragwort
Other Common Names: stinking willie
Synonym(s): Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertner
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: séneçon jacobée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159061
Element Code: PDAST8H1U0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Senecio
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Senecio jacobaea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (05Jun2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Maine (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Washington (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, MA, MEexotic, MIexotic, MTexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, WAexotic, WYexotic
Canada BCexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Primarily a weed of western grasslands (highest impacts are west of the Cascades). This is a species that primarily invades very disturbed, low quality habitats such as roadsides, clearcuts, abandoned fields, pastures; primarily a rangeland pest, with significant impacts because it is toxic and can poison livestock, but with fairly low biodiversity impacts.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 07Jan2004
Evaluator: Maybury, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe, North Africa, and western Asia

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: At least six ecological systems: Coastal grasslands in the northeast and Pacific coasts, many types of forest systems (usu. following clearcutting), interior grasslands, dunes.

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No impacts reported.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Can rapidly colonize disturbed areas, perhaps moderately increasing the total density of the herbaceous layer.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Outcompetes native and naturalized grasses and forbs (Bossard et al. 2000).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No specific impacts noted.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This is a species that primarily invades very disturbed, low quality habitats such as roadsides, clearcuts, abandoned fields, and pastures. It could potentially affect rare plants that require disturbance such as those that occur in power line rights-of-way, but I could find no specific evidence that this occurs. Macdonald and Russo (1989) reported that this species was found in shallow-soiled steep slopes and in cliff crevices in Cascade Head Preserve, Oregon, so otherwise sparsely vegetated (barrens) soils may be more at risk. In general, however, Senecio jacobaea is primarily a rangeland pest, with significant impacts because it is toxic and can poison livestock and contaminate milk. As of March 2004, it was listed as a "watch" species in New England by IPANE, meaning the species is viewed as a potential threat even though occurrences are few so far.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Northern California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Illinois, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Maine, and Massachusetts (Kartesz 1999, IPANE 2001).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Medium/Low significance
Comments: In California, along the coast and in the Klamath and Cascade ranges (Bossard et al. 2000). In the Pacific Northwest, widespread west of the Cascades, but only present "to some extent" in eastern Oregon and Washington (Burrill et al. 1994). Apparently not at all common in Idaho or Montana. In the east, it is mostly a threat in coastal grasslands, but is thus far not become as much of a problem as in the West (IPANE 2001).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Moderate significance
Comments: About 18 TNC ecoregions out of 64.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:High significance
Comments: At least six ecological systems: Coastal grasslands in the northeast and Pacific coasts, many types of forest systems (usu. following clearcutting), interior grasslands, dunes.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Does not seem to be spreading rapidly to other areas or to have a decreasing range. Possibly some spread into New England(?).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Medium/Low significance
Comments: It seems that this species could have the potential to spread to other parts of New England, the Midwest, the Southeast. Native to a wide area in Eurasia and can survive under most soil moisture conditions, even very hot, dry conditions (Burrill et al. 1994).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Low significance
Comments: Seeds are wind dispersed but most travel less than 10 feet from the plant (Burrill 1994, Poole and Cairns 1940 as cited in Macdonald and Russo 1989). Found along roadsides, so could be spread by adhering to vehicles/tires (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board 2003); spread by contaminated hay & straw and by wool spread on fields as fertilizer has been reported (Burrill 1994, IPANE 2001).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Dramatic declines were seen in the past due to the introduction of native biological control agents. Aggressive biological controls in the 1970s caused cases of tansy ragwort poisoning to decline twentyfold (Burrill 1994) in western Oregon. Biological controls were introduced in California as early as 1959 (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board 2003). Current trends are unknown.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Early seral, disturbance species.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Also escaped in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, and at least Argentina in South America (IPANE 2001; Bossard et al. 2000).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Prolific seed production. Plants usually produce 60,000 - 70,000 seeds per year and large plants have been reported to produce 150,000 to a quarter million seeds per year (Burrill 1994, IPANE 2001). Seeds remain viable for as long as 15 years (Burrill 1994).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Based on Burrill (1994); biological controls that were useful west of the Cascades do not establish well on the eastern slope. Herbicides can be very effective (e.g., California Dept.of Food and Agriculture, not dated).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Moderate significance
Comments: Seeds remain viable for long periods. Establishment of biological controls (where possible) may take up to five years (California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, not dated).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Herbicide application would affect native species, but tansy ragwort is primarily found in areas that are not high quality native species habitats. Biological controls are presumably relatively benign.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Many plants will persist on private lands, vacant lots, etc., but accessibility problems in conservation areas should be rare.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bossard, C.C., J.M. Randall, and M. Hoshovsky. (eds.) 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Burrill, L. C., R. H. Callihan, R. Parker, E. Coombs, and H. Radtke. 1994. Tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.). Available at: http://forages.oregonstate.edu/main.cfm?PageID=219. (Accessed 2004).

  • California Dept. of Food and Agriculture. 2003. Last updated December 13, 2003. EncycloWeedia: Notes on identification, biology, and management of plants defined as Noxious Weeds by California law. Available at: http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/encycloweedia/encycloweedia_hp.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 20. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 7: Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxii + 666 pp.

  • Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). 2001. List of species of interest. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/NPS_list.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Macdonald, C. and M. J. Russo. 1989. Element stewardship abstract for Senecio jacobaea. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/senejac.pdf.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Pelser, P.B., B. Nordenstam, J.W. Kadereit, and L.E. Watson. 2007. An ITS Phylogeny of Tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae) and a New Delimitation of Senecio L. Taxon 56(4): 1077-1104.

  • Poole, A. L. and D. Cairns. 1940. Botanical aspects of ragwort (SENECIO JACOBAEA L.) control. Bull. Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. 82: 1-61.

  • Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2003. Written findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board. Available at: http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/contents.html. (Accessed 2004).

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