Sedum eastwoodiae - (Britton) A. Berger
Red Mountain Stonecrop
Synonym(s): Sedum laxum ssp. eastwoodiae (Britt.) Clausen
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sedum eastwoodiae (Britt.) Berger (TSN 507750)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156031
Element Code: PDCRA0A0L1
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Stonecrop Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Crassulaceae Sedum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sedum laxum ssp. eastwoodiae
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1999) treats Sedum eastwoodiae as a distinct species. California Natural Diversity Database and the second edition of The Jepson Manual (Baldwin et al. 2012) accept it as a subspecies of S. laxum.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 19Aug2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known from only 4 occurrences, all located on a mountain in Mendocino County, California (CNPS 2001). Habitat is rocky openings in lower montane coniferous forest with serpentine soils (USFWS 2003). The 2004 population estimate for Sedum eastwoodiae was at least 5,300 plants. The populations are within a Bureau of Land Management Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC), but are still vulnerable to nickel, chromium, and cobalt mining due to existing claims which might be developed. From 1987 through 1998, the plant's populations have experienced little human impact (Baad 1998 cited by USFWS 2003). However, the possibility of future mining activities would highly threaten this Sedum (USFWS 2003, 2004).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: In a 12-month petition finding, USFWS (2014) found listing Sedum eastwoodiae is not warranted at this time.
 

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in an area of about 10.4 square km (4 square miles) on Red Mountain, Mendocino County, California (USFWS, 2004).

Area of Occupancy: 1-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Occurs in an area of 12 hectares (30 acres) altogether (USFWS, 2004).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from only 4 nearby occurrences in one county of California, with 27 small patches of occupied habitat (USFWS, 2004).

Population Size Comments: A maximum of about 5,300 plants estimated.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: One substantial sub-population appears viable, with many thousands of plants in about 10 acres (4 hectares).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is habitat degradation/loss. The primary threat to this species is the potential for future mining activities (USFWS 2003). Although mining does not now occur in the species' habitat, potential future surface nickel, chromium, and cobalt mining (on existing claims) threaten this species ((Dr. M. Baad, in litt. 1994; CDFG 1997; Finan 1994; cited by USFWS 2003, 2004). Whether or not mining occurs depends on the future economic feasibility and demand for minerals (USFWS 2003). Most likely, any mining operation would be an open-face bench type that would involve removal and processing of the mineral-bearing ore which contains the nickel, chromium, and cobalt (BLM 1988 cited by USFWS 2003). All vegetation and habitat for Sedum laxum ssp. eastwoodiae would be removed from mined land (USFWS 2003). If the lands were to be patented into private ownership and mining commenced, neither the USFWS nor the BLM could offer any protection of the land beyond elevating the profile and plight of the plant species (USFWS 2003). Sedum laxum ssp. eastwoodiae is also threatened by random environmental events due to the small number of individual plants and the small number of populations remaining (USFWS 2003).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Dr. Michael Baad (California State University) annually monitored eight 5 square meter (16 square feet) permanent plots on Red Mountain from 1987 to 1998 (USFWS 2003). Dr. Baad concluded that no dramatic changes have occurred in the Sedum laxum ssp. eastwoodiae populations since 1987 (USFWS 2003). Fluctuations in population parameters have been caused largely by normal variation in the physical and biological environments of the plants (USFWS 2003). From 1987 through 1998, the plant's populations have experienced little human impact (Baad 1998 cited by USFWS 2003).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: In 2003, the general distribution within the habitat area was similar to that of 1986 (USFWS, 2004).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Most subpopulations are quite small, leaving the species vulnerable to effects of stochastic processes and catastrophic events (USFWS, 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Serpentine endemic.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in an area of about 10.4 square km (4 square miles) on Red Mountain, Mendocino County, California (USFWS, 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Mendocino (06045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 South Fork Eel (18010106)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb. Blooms May-July.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Lower montane coniferous forest habitats associated with serpentine-derived soils.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. (1997), rev. A. Olivero (2003); rev. L. Morse (2006), rev. R. Bittman 2006

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, eds. 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California. 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1568 pp.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1997 (1994). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 1997 Electronic Inventory Update of 1994 5th edition, California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1, Sacramento.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1995. Category and Listing Priority Form.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Sedum eastwoodiae. 10 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Draft Candidate and Listing Priority Assignment Form: Sedum eastwoodiae. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2014. 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Eriogonum kelloggii (Red Mountain buckwheat) and Sedum eastwoodiae (Red Mountain stonecrop) as Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register 79(181): 56029-56040.

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