Sebastes paucispinis - Ayres, 1854
Bocaccio
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sebastes paucispinis Ayres, 1854 (TSN 166733)
French Common Names: bocaccio
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106002
Element Code: AFC4A06440
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Sebastes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sebastes paucispinis
Taxonomic Comments: NMFS (2002) recognized two discrete population segments, north and south of an area of scarcity in northern California and southern Oregon. These segments have a 90 percent probability of being genetically distinct from each other (NMFS 2002).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Jul2003
Global Status Last Changed: 30Dec2002
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (30Dec2002)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1N2 (01Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Washington (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (SNR)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS:LE,SC
Comments on USESA: NMFS (2016) propose to update and amend the listing description for the bocaccio DPS based on a geographic description and to include fish within specified boundaries.

NMFS (April 28, 2010) published a final determination to list the Puget Sound/Georgia Basin Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) and canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) as threatened, and bocaccio rockfish (Sebastes paucispinis) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act.

Southern population (southern California to northern Mexico) is a Species of Concern (Federal Register 15 April 2004). California-Oregon population was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (Federal Register, 23 June 1999). NMFS (Federal Register, 14 June 2001) was petitioned to list the southern population (Cape Mendocino to Baja California) as a threatened species; NMFS found that the petition presented substantial information indicating that the request for listing may be warranted; a status review was initiated. NMFS (2002) determined that listing of the southern population is not warranted.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01Nov2013)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This species is a long-lived rockfish with a maximum age for females in Canada of 52 years and a generation time of 20 years. Its life history makes it susceptible to overfishing. The current assessment has benefited from increased population information that covers the entire distribution in Canada and extends much further into the past. The population has been in continuous decline for 60 years and it has declined by 28% in the 10-year period since it was first assessed by COSEWIC. New surveys initiated since the last assessment indicate that these recent declines have occurred in areas of highest biomass off the west coast of Vancouver Island and in Queen Charlotte Sound. Fishery bycatch has been reduced but remains the main threat to the population.

Status history: Designated Threatened in November 2002. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in November 2013.

IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean, from Alaska to Baja California.

Population Size Comments: Current abundance of the southern population segment is estimated at approximately 1.6 million fish of age 1 or older (NMFS 2002).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Evidently has declined primarily as a result of overutilization by fisheries targeting bocaccio and as bycatch in other fisheries (NMFS 2002). NMFS (2002) summarized recent fishery management aimed at reducing this threat and allowing the stock to recover.

Habitat likely has been degraded by commercial trawling, but this type of trawling has now been excluded from primary bocaccio habitat (NMFS 2002).

Protracted, warm ocean conditions in the 1990s were associated with poor recruitment and undoubtedly contributed to the decline in abundance (NMFS 2002).

Short-term Trend Comments: Current conservation measures are expected to allow stock recovery (NMFS 2002).

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Long-term Trend Comments: Recruitment is highly variable, has exceeded losses of adults in only 26 percent of years; no large recruitments have occurred since 1978; as a result, abundance fluctuates greatly (NMFS 2002). Since 1969, there has been a gradual decline in abundance to the current level of 3.6 percent of estimated unfished abundance (NMFS 2002).

On the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, abundance apparently declined by over 95% in the past 20-30 years and 90% in the past 10 years; the trend is uncertain elsewhere in British Columbia waters (Stanley et al. 2002). The trend since 1995 has been relatively stable (Stanley et al. 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Populations of large, old fish, which are much more productive than younger mature individuals, have been reduced by fishing (Garrison 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean, from Alaska to Baja California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Copulates generally in late summer and early fall; females bear live young in winter; off California, some females produce multiple broods in one season; juveniles grow rapidly but take 5 years to mature; may live up to 40 years; mean generation time is 12 years (see NMFS 2002). Large old fish may contribute most importantly to reproductive success (Garrison 2002).
Ecology Comments: Eaten by marine mammals; juveniles sometimes are important in the diets of sea birds (NMFS 2002).
Habitat Type: Marine
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore, Pelagic
Habitat Comments: Adults often occur in rocky areas, at depths of 12-481 m (most abundant at 50-251 m); larvae and small juveniles are pelagic and commonly occur in the upper 90 m of the water column; juveniles sometimes form dense schools under drifting kelp mats (NMFS 2002).
Adult Food Habits: Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: This species has been an important component of commercial and recreational catches off California for several decades (NMFS 2002).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jul2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Jan2003

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • COSEWIC 2002. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Bocaccio Sebastes paucispinis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 43 pp.

  • COSEWIC. 2013. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Bocaccio Sebastes paucispinis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xi + 49 pp.

  • Garrison, K. 2002. Extinction of ocean fish: a growing threat. Endangered Species Update 19(5):217-221.

  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2002. 12-month finding on a petition to list bocaccio as threatened. Federal Register 67(223):69704-

  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2010. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: threatened status for the Puget Sound/Georgia Basin Distinct Population Segments of yelloweye and canary rockfish and endangered status for the Puget Sound/Georgia Basin Distinct Population Segment of boccaccio rockfish. Federal Register 75(81):22276-22290.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Stanley, R. D., K. Rutherford, amd N. Olsen. 2002. COSEWIC status report on bocaccio Sebastes paucispinis Ayres, 1854 from B.C. waters. Draft report, September 2002. vii + 48 pp.

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