Scutellaria saxatilis - Riddell
Rock Skullcap
Other English Common Names: Smooth Rock Skullcap
Other Common Names: smooth rock skullcap
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell (TSN 32777)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157864
Element Code: PDLAM1U150
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Scutellaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scutellaria saxatilis
Taxonomic Comments: Excludes var. pilosior (= Scutellaria arguta).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Aug2018
Global Status Last Changed: 30Aug2018
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Scutellaria saxatilis is an Appalachian, clonal, perennial plant which occurs in rocky forests. At least 125 occurrences are known from eight of ten states across the range of the species where information is available. This species is considered sufficiently common that it is not tracked in a few states, but it is rare nearly everywhere else. It is apparently most abundant in Virginia and Kentucky.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Delaware (SH), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (S1), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S2S3), Maryland (S1), New Jersey (SNR), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S3), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Scutellaria saxatilis only occurs in the Eastern United States, primarily in the Appalachians from Delaware, Maryland and southwestern Pennsylvania to southern Indiana, south to east Tennessee, and western North Carolina.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are an estimated 125 extant occurrences in Indiana (3), Kentucky (7), Maryland (4), North Carolina (14), Ohio (20), Pennsylvania (6), Tennessee (46), and West Virginia (21). It also occurs in Virginia (individual populations not documented, but it has been found in 26 counties).

Population Size Comments: Many occurrences have 1000s of plant stems (Dolan 2004) in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. This species is rhizomatous and clonal so genetic diversity is much lower than the number of stems alone indicates.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is subject to drying by sunlight if large gaps of openings are present in the forest canopy. The primary threat is loss of forest canopy (affects the moist microclimate of forest floor). The invasion of exotic species is a threat (including Microstegium vimineum, Japanese Stilt Grass; Ailanthus altissima, Tree of heaven, and Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle). Other threats include grazing, and recreational use of habitat (trampling of plants at a popular site in Maryland).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Absolute trend is unknown; species is not tracked in several areas of its range. However, there are many historical locations across the range and only historical locations in Delaware.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Logging and grazing have historically been threats throughout much of the Appalachians.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Scutellaria saxatilis only occurs in the Eastern United States, primarily in the Appalachians from Delaware, Maryland and southwestern Pennsylvania to southern Indiana, south to east Tennessee, and western North Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DC, DE, GA, IN, KY, MD, NC, NJ, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Henry (01067)*
IN Crawford (18025)
KY Bath (21011)*, Bell (21013), Elliott (21063), Fleming (21069), Harlan (21095), Lewis (21135), McCreary (21147), Pike (21195)*, Rowan (21205), Whitley (21235)
MD Frederick (24021), Montgomery (24031)
NC Alleghany (37005), Ashe (37009), Cherokee (37039), Graham (37075), Mitchell (37121), Yancey (37199)
OH Adams (39001), Gallia (39053), Jefferson (39081)*, Lawrence (39087), Meigs (39105), Monroe (39111), Scioto (39145), Vinton (39163), Washington (39167)
PA Allegheny (42003), Beaver (42007), Bedford (42009)*, Fayette (42051), Greene (42059), Somerset (42111)*, Venango (42121)*, Westmoreland (42129)
TN Blount (47009), Carter (47019), Cocke (47029), Cumberland (47035), Hancock (47067), Hawkins (47073), Johnson (47091), Morgan (47129)*, Polk (47139), Sullivan (47163), Unicoi (47171)
WV Boone (54005)*, Cabell (54011), Fayette (54019), Greenbrier (54025)*, Jefferson (54037), Mercer (54055), Monroe (54063), Pendleton (54071), Pocahontas (54075), Raleigh (54081), Randolph (54083), Summers (54089), Tucker (54093), Wood (54107), Wyoming (54109)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Raystown (02050303)+*, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+, Upper James (02080201)+
03 Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+*
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+*, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+*, Cheat (05020004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Middle New (05050002)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Lower New (05050004)+, Gauley (05050005)+, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+*, Coal (05050009)+*, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Guyandotte (05070101)+*, Upper Levisa (05070202)+*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Licking (05100101)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Emory (06010208)+*, Hiwassee (06020002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Scutellaria saxatilis is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial, with decumbent stems (which trail along the ground and root at nodes). The leaves have long petioles, and are ovate, with short, blunt tips, and crenate (with rounded teeth) margins. The inflorescence is an open raceme of white, blue-violet flowers, each 12-20 mm long.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Scutellaria saxatilis occurs in rich, often rocky, deciduous woods. It is associated with rocky woods of sandstone and shale, on hillsides, moist cliffs, talus slopes, in mesophytic ravines, moist areas along streams, but is sometimes found in dry woods or more open habitat, such as along roadsides (Dolan 2004).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Preserves should be designed so that they are large enough to allow for population expansion and should include adequate buffer area surrounding occurrences. Invasive exotic plant species and encroachment by woody plants should be controlled. Grazing should be prevented. Forest canopy needs to be without large gaps and openings which allow sunlight to dry plants; therefore, canopies should be protected from logging or elimination by other means. Populations need to be protected from trampling and other destructive threats. Monitoring needs to be carried out on a frequent basis to assess population size and vigor, reproductive success, habitat quality, and threats. Research is needed to investigate population dynamics, seed dispersal mechanisms, establishment regimes, and the natural history of this species.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserves should be of sufficient size to sustain viable populations over time. Preserves should be of large enough size so that population expansion can occur. In addition, adequate buffer should surround occurrences to protect from outside influences such as exotic species introductions, erosion, etc.
Management Requirements: Ensure that exotic invasive plant species (such as Lonicera japonica and Microstegium vimineum) are controlled or removed as part of management considerations (Homoya 1992, Rock 1992).

Logging will promote the increase of competition by undesirable shrubs and vines that will crowd out S. saxatilis. Any logging that is planned should be selective or group-selective. Additionally, populations of S. saxatilis should be monitored to prevent loss to competition (TN ESD 1992b).

Populations located near trails need to be protected from trampling.

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring should include regular visits to extant populations to track their status with respect to on-going management regimes. Population size (number of individuals) and vigor and the assessment of habitat quality and threats (especially the status of invasive exotics) should be tracked. (Homoya 1992).

Management Programs: Control of Japanese grass (Microstegium vimineum), an exotic, invasive plant species, has been carried out at populations within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Control was accomplished by hand-pulling and removing plants. Contact: Janet Rock, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Natural Resources Management, 107 Park Headquarters Road, Gatlinburg, TN 37738. Telephone: (615) 436-1244.
Monitoring Programs: Monitoring for two small populations is ongoing in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Data are collected every two years in reference to population size (number of individuals present) and the number of flowering plants present. In addition, assessments are made of habitat quality and threats. Contact: Janet Rock, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Natural Resources Management, 107 Park Headquarters Road, Gatlinburg, TN 37738. Telephone: (615) 436-1244.
Management Research Programs: There is no known research program in effect for management purposes.
Management Research Needs: Management of this species would benefit from research related to natural history, population dynamics, seed dispersal mechanisms, and establishment regimes (Cusick 1992).
Additional topics: Illustrations of Scutellaria saxatilis may be found in the following sources: Gleason (1963), TN ESD (1992b).

Range distribution maps for this species may be found in the following sources: Deam (1940)(IN), TN ESD (1992b)(TN), Rhoades and Klein (1993)(PA), WV NHP 1994b (WV).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Aug2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ambrose, Donn M.(1994); rev. S.L.Neid (1998); rev. L. Morse (2000), rev. C. Nordman (2018)
Management Information Edition Date: 25Jun1997
Management Information Edition Author: Ambrose, Donn M. (1994)
Management Information Acknowledgments: We are indebted to all the botanists, ecologists, information managers, and others who took the time to provide the information necessary for the preparation of this and many other Element Stewardship Abstracts.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Sep2018
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nordman, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cusick, A.W. and G.M. Silberhorn. 1977. The vascular plants of unglaciated Ohio. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey- New Series 5(4): 102.

  • Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF). 1992. Cooperative inventory of endangered, threatened, sensitive, and rare species, Daniel Boone National Forest, Morehead Ranger District. Cooperators: United States Forest Service, The Nature Conservancy, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

  • Daniel Boone National Forest. 1992. Cooperative inventory of endangered, threatened, sensitive, and rare species, Daniel Boone National Forest, Moorhead Ranger District. Cooperators: United States Forest Service, The Nature Conservancy, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. 34pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Delaware Natural Heritage Program (DE NHP). 1993. Rare native plants of Delaware. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Division of Parks and Recreation, Smyrna, DE.

  • Delaware Natural Heritage Program (DE NHP). 1993. Rare native plants of Delaware. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Division of Parks and Recreation.

  • Dolan, R. 2004. Conservation Assessment for Rock Skullcap (Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Friesner Herbarium, Butler University. Indianapolis, IN.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition. American Book Company, New York.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. 1970 printing with corrections by R.C. Rollins [of 1950 8th edition]. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

  • Gentry, J.L., G.P. Johnson, B.T. Baker, C.T. Witsell, and J.D. Ogle, eds. 2013. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Herbarium, Fayetteville, Arkansas.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1963. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Hafner Publishing Co., Inc., New York. Vol: 1-3.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Harvill, A.M., Jr., T.R. Bradley, C.E. Stevens, T.F. Wieboldt, D.M.E. Ware, and D.W. Ogle. 1986. Atlas of the Virginia flora. Second edition. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville. 135 pp.

  • Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center (IN NHDC). 1994. Element occurrence records for Scutellaria saxatilis. 4 pp.

  • Jacquart, E.M. 1992a. Botanist, Hoosier National Forest, Brownstown, IN. Field notes for Scutellaria saxatilis sites on the Ironton District. 2 pp.

  • Jacquart, E.M. 1992b. Botanist, Hoosier National Forest, Brownstown, IN. Field notes for Scutellaria saxatilis sites on the Tell City District. 2 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1993. Species distribution data for vascular plants of 70 geographical areas, from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, July, 1993.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kentucky Natural Heritage Program (KY NHP). 1994a. Element ranking form for Scutellaria saxatilis. 3 pp.

  • Kentucky Natural Heritage Program (KY NHP). 1994b. Element occurrence records for Scutellaria saxatilis. 4 pp.

  • Maryland Natural Heritage Program (MDNHP). 1994g. Element state ranking form for Scutellaria saxatilis. 1 p.

  • Maryland Natural Heritage Program (MDNHP). 1994h. Element occurrence records for Scutellaria saxatilis. 5 pp.

  • Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalog of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. PhD. dissertation. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

  • Ohio Natural Heritage Program (OH NHP). 1994a. Species summary sheet for Scutellaria saxatilis. 1 p.

  • Ohio Natural Heritage Program (OH NHP). 1994b. Element occurrence records and LCD forms for Scutellaria saxatilis. 19 pp.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1964. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA. 636 pp.

  • Scutellaria saxatilis: Terrell, E.E. 1969-06-02 4255 (USDC) Montgomery County; "rocky woods, south end of Bear Island."

  • Scutellaria saxatilis: Thompson, E. and D.D. Boone. 1991-08-20 SN (TAWES) Garrett County; "south branch of Bear Creek."

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. The Society of Natural History of Delaware. 313 pp.

  • Tennessee Ecological Services Division (TN ESD). 1992a. Element occurrence records for Scutellaria saxatilis. 15 pp.

  • Tennessee Ecological Services Division (TN ESD). 1992b. Special summary sheet for Scutellaria saxatilis. 2 pp.

  • Tennessee Valley Authority Regional Heritage (TVA RH). 1994. Element occurrence records for Scutellaria saxatilis. 24 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy, Science Division, Home Office. 1992. ELLINK Report for Scutellaria saxatilis. 1 p.

  • West Virginia Natural Heritage Program (WV NHP). 1994a. Element occurrence record for Scutellaria saxatilis. 1 p.

  • West Virginia Natural Heritage Program (WV NHP). 1994b. Special plant survey form and map for Scutellaria saxatilis. 3 pp.

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