Scrophularia atrata - Pennell
Black-flower Figwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Scrophularia atrata Pennell (TSN 34031)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141740
Element Code: PDSCR1S010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Scrophularia
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scrophularia atrata
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Sep2005
Global Status Last Changed: 18Mar1997
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to California, Scrophularia atrata is known from approximately 44 (minus 25 historic) occurrences in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Hybridization and loss of habitat are threats to this species. No sites are currently protected. Ownership includes DOD lands, DPR, Caltrans and private owners.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2?)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Confined to areas near the coast in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties, California. (Hickman 1993) The known occurrences consist of a range of about 2700 sq mi.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The known occurrences consist of about 365 ac of occupied habitat at most.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The CNDDB knows of 44 occurrences, but 25 are historic.

Population Size Comments: Occurrences with population data add up to about 7580 plants in total. There are probably some more out there, but some occurrences may be degraded or gone now too.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: About eight occurrences are ranked good or better.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat loss and degradation from proposed developments, ranching/farming, mining, AFB activities, road builiding, aqueduct building, and dumping are threatening this taxon. Hybridization with S. californica ssp. floribunda also threaten species. Non-native, invasive species may also be present in shared habitat.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining due to development, energy development, mining, road development and maintenance, a proposed landfill at one site and the MX project (in the past?) or possibly other Air Force activities on Vandenberg AFB.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Over the long term, this plant has likely declined slightly from human activities.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Moderately vulnerable due to tendency to hybridize with the more common species, S. californica var. floribunda. Also, tends to be overlooked due to wispy habit.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Occurs both on and off of diatomaceous soils in chaparral, closed cone coniferous forest, coastal scrub, etc.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Confined to areas near the coast in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties, California. (Hickman 1993) The known occurrences consist of a range of about 2700 sq mi.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA San Luis Obispo (06079), Santa Barbara (06083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Central Coastal (18060006)+, Santa Maria (18060008)+, San Antonio (18060009)+, Santa Ynez (18060010)+, Santa Barbara Coastal (18060013)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Perennial;
Stem 10-12 dm
Leaf: blade 6-10 cm, ovate, acute, dentate, teeth rounded to widely acute; petiole 2-7 cm
Inflorescence long, glandular-puberulent; branches widely spreading
Flower: calyx lobes 3 mm, ovate, rounded; corolla 9-11 mm, urn-shaped, upper half blackish, lower half dark maroon, lowest lobe spreading to reflexed; staminode oblong, width << limb of upper lip, dark maroon
Fruit 6-8 mm, ovoid, obtuse or acute


Technical Description: Perennial stem 10-12 dm. Leaf: blade 6-10 cm, ovate, acute, dentate, dentate, teeth rounded to widely acute; petiole 2-7 cm. Inflorescence long, glandular-puberulent; branches widely spreading. Flower: calyx lobes approximately 3 mm., ovate, rounded; corolla 9-11 mm, urn-shaped, upper half blackish, lower half dark maroon, lowest lobe spreading to reflexed; staminode approximately oblong, width much less than limb of the upper lip, dark maroon. Fruit 6-8 mm., ovoid, obtuse or acute. (Hickman 1993)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Similar to Scrophularia californica with which it hybridizes. Best distinguished by flower color and the shape of the staminode. S. atrata has a darker flower and a less inflated staminode.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: The degree to which this plant self-pollinates or outcrosses is unknown. Bees have been seen pollinating flowers, but exact species or other pollen vectors is unknown. It hybridizes freely in portions of its range with S. californica ssp. floribunda, supporting the outcrossing mechanism.
Ecology Comments: This plant seems to prefer moister areas within coastal scrub, coastal dunes, riparian scrub and bishop pine forest near the immediate coast. The plant tends to be found predominantly near or under mature scrub species such as California sage and coyote brush. These plants afford a partially shaded environment and hold more moisture due to shading and mulch accumulation. Will tolerate some disturbance; has been seen along road cuts in moister areas. Pampas grass and black mustard compete.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Moister areas within coastal dunes, coastal scrub, chaparral and coniferous forest. Often found on diatomaceous shales, but not restricted to this substrate. Also found on sand and soils of other substrates such as limestone and sand dunes. It is particularly common around swales in sand dunes.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Hybridizes freely with S. californica ssp. floribunda so populations should be kept widely separated if possible. Pampas grass and mustard compete, so the exotic invasives should be controlled. Requires mature chaparral/scrub plants as nurse plants for shade and mulch to grow; maintain some mature habitat in preserves.
Restoration Potential: Because of hybridization problems, long-term preservation of this species may be problematic in the wild.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Requires moister sites with mature chaparral/scrub plants as nurse-plants. Preserves should have swale topography with low-lying areas that tend to remain moist with mature chaparral/scrub vegetation. Keep populations of S. californica as widely separated as possible.
Management Requirements: Control exotic invasives which compete for moisture and habitat.
Monitoring Requirements: Monitor degree of hybridization with S. californica and determine which populations are the most genetically pure.
Management Research Needs: Determine whether this species deserves full species status or if genetically distinct enough from S. californica to warrant protection.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jul2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Michael Schindel, rev. D. Gries, rev. M. Fellows (2003), R. Bittman 2005
Management Information Edition Date: 10Jul1995
Management Information Edition Author: Michael Schindel
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Jul1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Michael Schindel

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abrams, L. 1951. Illustrated flora of the Pacific states: Washington, Oregon, and California. Vol. 3. Geraniaceae to Scrophulariaceae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 866 pp.

  • California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, David P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. x + 388pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Hickson, D. 1995. Conversation regarding Scrophularia atrata.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th. edition. California Native Plant Society Special Publication No. 1.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1997 (1994). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 1997 Electronic Inventory Update of 1994 5th edition, California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1, Sacramento.

  • Smith, D.M. 1982. Field study of candidate or endangered plant species at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Contract #11310-0133-81.

  • Versar, Inc. 1987. Environmental assessment for the repair and restoration of Space Launch Complex 4 at Vandenberg AFB

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.