Sclerocactus wetlandicus - Hochstätter
Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus
Other English Common Names: Parriette Hookless Cactus
Other Common Names: Uinta Basin hookless cactus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.817003
Element Code: PDCAC0J0W0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Sclerocactus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B03FNA04HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sclerocactus wetlandicus
Taxonomic Comments: Sclerocactus wetlandicus is morphologically very simliar to S. glaucus and frequently has been treated within S. glaucus as in Welsh et al. 2008. However, the taxon is recognized as distinct in Flora of North America volume 4 (2003) where the authors, Heil and Porter treat S. glaucus in a more narrow sense (known only from Grand Junction area south to near Montrose, Colorado). Heil and Porter cite consistent chloroplast DNA data with J.M. Porter et al. (2000) and F. Hochstätter's (1997) recognition of the two taxa. However Heil and Porter note that S. glaucus and S. wetlandicus are morphologically very similar and may be very difficult to discriminate without electron microscopy or a determination based on geography (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2003). As treated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), S. wetlandicus material was considered to be included in the Listed Threatened Sclerocactus glaucus "complex" until 18 September 2007. On that date, USFWS "proposed to change the taxonomy of the Sclerocactus glaucus 'complex' to three distinct species: Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus" (USFWS 2007); on 15 September 2009, USFWS finalized this taxonomic change.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09May2009
Global Status Last Changed: 09May2009
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to the Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Vulnerable to disturbance from oil and gas exploration and development.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (15Sep2009)
Comments on USESA: On 18 September 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service "proposed to change the taxonomy of the currently threatened Sclerocactus glaucus 'complex' to three distinct species: Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus. Because these species make up what was formerly the 'complex,' each will maintain its status of being listed as threatened" (USFWS 2007). On 15 September 2009, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published the Final Rule implementing this taxonomic change.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from Duchesne and Uintah counties, Utah (Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 8 occurrences observed since 1989 and 17 others last observed earlier (UTNHP 2009).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Potential threats include disturbance from domestic livestock grazing, oil and gas exploration and development, building stone collecting, and off-road vehicle use and recreation (Heil and Porter 1993 cited by Franklin 2005). Development of tar sands and oil shale are again of interest in the Uinta Basin (Franklin 2005).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from Duchesne and Uintah counties, Utah (Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Carbon (49007), Duchesne (49013), Uintah (49047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Lower White (14050007)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+*, Strawberry (14060004)+*, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Diagnostic Characteristics: For a morphological comparison between Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus (sensu stricto), and S. wetlandicus, see USFWS (2009).
Reproduction Comments: Believed to be dispersed by heavy down-pours (Tepedino et al. 2010).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Salt desert shrub communities and pinon-juniper woodlands on river benches, valley slopes, and rolling hills (Franklin 2005). Gravel-covered clay hills, desert grasslands, saltbush, and rabbitbrush flats (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2003).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09May2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Tomaino, A.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • 100th Congress. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973, appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1988-1992. Public Law 100-478-October 7, 1988 102 STAT.2307-102 STAT.2323.

  • BLM Vernal District. 1994. DRAFT: Building stone colllecting Environmental Assessment. E.A. #1994-1

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Franklin, M.A. 2005. Plant information compiled by the Utah Natural Heritage Program: A progress report. Publication Number 05-40. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah. 341 pp. [http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/ucdc/ViewReports/plantrpt.htm]

  • Hochstatter, F. 1997. The genus Sclerocactus (Cactaceae) - Part 4. Cact. Succ. J. Gr. Brit. 15: 74-81.

  • Hochstätter, F. 1990. To the habitats of Pedio- and Sclerocactus. Over 100,000 kilometers in the North American wilderness. 170 pp.

  • Nitschke-Sinclear, J. 1985. Field report: Sclerocactus Glaucus survey. Unpublished Bureau of Land Management report. Unpaginated (6 pp. + map).

  • Nitschke-Sinclear, J. 1989. Report on the Special Status Plant Inventory conducted on the Diamond Mountain Resource Area, 1989. Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, Diamond Mountain Resource Area. 12 pp. [UNHP copy missing pg. 2].

  • Nitschke-Sinclear, J. 1999. 1985 Sclerocactus glaucus survey map updated with Sclerocactus glaucus/Sclerocactus brevispinus boundary.

  • Porter, J. M., M. S. Kinney, and K. D. Heil. 2000. Relationships between Sclerocactus and Toumeya (Cactaceae) based on chloroplast trnL-trnF sequences. Haseltonia 7: 8-23.

  • Shultz, L. M., and K. M. Mutz. 1979. Threatened and endangered plants of the Willow Creek drainage. Vols. I and II. Submitted to: Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, contract #YA-512-CT9-105. Meiji Resource Consultants. 74 pp. + maps and data sheets.

  • Stone, R.D. 1998. Endemic and rare plants of Utah: an overview of their distribution and status. Prepared for: Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission, U.S. Department of the Interior by Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 566 pp. + appendices. [http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/ucdc/ViewReports/plantrpt.htm]

  • Tepedino, V. J., T. L. Griswold, and W. R. Bowlin. 2010. Reproductive biology, hybridization and flower visitors of the rare Sclerocactus taxa in Utah's Uinatah Basin. Western North American Naturalist 70(3): 377-386.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition To List Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette cactus) as an Endangered or Threatened Species; Taxonomic Change From Sclerocactus glaucus to Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus. Federal Register 72(180): 53211-53222.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Taxonomic Change of Sclerocactus Glaucus to Three Separate Species. Federal Register 74(177): 47112-47117.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of Utah: a reevaluation. Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 1-18.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1979. Status report: Sclerocactus glaucus. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (updated by K. Woodbury, April 16, 1980).

  • Welsh, S. L. 1981. Threatened and endangered plant survey of transmission corridors; Bonanza Plant Site to Vernal substation, Bonanza Plant Site to southwest Rangely substation, and Bonanza Plant Site to Upalco substation. Prepared for: Deseret Generation & Transmission Co-operative, Sandy, Utah. Prepared by: Endangered Plants Studies, Inc., Orem, Utah. 8 pp. + appendix.

  • Welsh, S. L., and E. Neese. 1979. Inventory of Potentially Endangered and Threatened plant populations of Jones Hole National Fish Hatchery and Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah. Endangered Plant Studies, Inc.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich and L.C. Higgins. (Eds.) 2008. A Utah Flora. 4th edition, revised. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, U.S.A. 1019 pp.

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