Sclerocactus brevispinus - Heil & Martin
Pariette Cactus
Other English Common Names: Straight-spine Fishhook Cactus
Synonym(s): Sclerocactus whipplei var. ilseae (F. Hochstatter) Welsh
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sclerocactus brevispinus Heil & Martin (TSN 565503)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.161086
Element Code: PDCAC0J0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Sclerocactus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sclerocactus brevispinus
Taxonomic Comments: Described as a new taxon (Sclerocactus wetlandicus var. ilseae) in 1993 and renamed as the distinct species Sclerocactus brevispinus in 1994. Not addressed under either name by Kartesz (1994), but accepted as S. brevispinus in Kartesz (1999). As treated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), S. brevispinus material was considered to be included in the Listed Threatened Sclerocactus glaucus "complex" until 18 September 2007. On that date, USFWS "proposed to change the taxonomy of the Sclerocactus glaucus 'complex' to three distinct species: Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus" (USFWS 2007); on 15 September 2009, USFWS finalized this taxonomic change. Sclerocactus brevispinus is recognized as a distinct species by Heil and Porter in their treatment for the Flora of North America (2003); these authors state that "the combination of spheric stems, short spines, and small pink flowers make Sclerocactus brevispinus easily identified.... There is a well-documented cline of genetic mixing between Sclerocactus brevispinus and S. wetlandicus. An important natural threat to S. brevispinus is genetic swamping from the more widespread S. wetlandicus." Also recognized as a distinct species by the Utah Natural Heritage Program. Considered by Welsh et al. (1993) to be a minor variant within Sclerocactus whipplei var. roseus, but recognized as the distinct taxon Sclerocactus whipplei var. ilseae by Welsh et al. (2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Dec2015
Global Status Last Changed: 18Oct1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Known from a single area a few miles across in the Pariette Draw region of the central Uinta Basin (Duchesne County, Utah). Three occurrences are documented by the Utah Natural Heritage Program and about 12,000 plant documented by the USFWS across the species range. The range of this species requires study to better define it's boundaries. Highly threatened by impacts from oil and gas development but the species has a number of other threats that include genetic swamping from the more widespread S. wetlandicus, illegal harvest, damage by livestock, predation, and drought.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (15Sep2009)
Comments on USESA: According to the Sept. 1997 candidate notice of review, "Sclerocactus brevispinus was mistakenly included in Table 1 in the 1996 notice. Until it was described as a new species in 1994, S. brevispinus was included in S. glaucus, a threatened species. Because S. brevispinus was a part of S. glaucus when the latter species was listed as threatened, those plants now referred to as S. brevispinus are still considered to be listed as threatened. Therefore, including S. brevispinus as a candidate in the 1996 notice was inappropriate and unnecessary. To address the recent change in taxonomy, a proposed rule to add S. brevispinus to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants will be published in the Federal Register at a later time." On 18 September 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service "proposed to change the taxonomy of the currently threatened Sclerocactus glaucus 'complex' to three distinct species: Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus. Because these species make up what was formerly the 'complex,' each will maintain its status of being listed as threatened" (USFWS 2007). On 15 September 2009, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published the Final Rule implementing this taxonomic change. In the same 18 September 2007 Federal Register notice, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service stated that "reclassifying S. brevispinus as endangered is warranted, due to threats associated with habitat loss and degradation due largely to energy development (Factor A), unauthorized collection (Factor B), and the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D). However, reclassifying S. brevispinus as endangered is precluded at this time by pending proposals for other species with higher listing priorities... [this] decision includes consideration of its current listed status as threatened... therefore already receives certain protections... We consider the priority for changing the status of Sclerocactus brevispinus... to be lower than for candidate species in need of protection under the Act" (USFWS 2007). This USFWS position was unchanged as of 15 September 2009 (USFWS 2009).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from a single area a few miles across in the Pariette Draw region of Duchesne County, Utah, U.S.A.

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The biggest threat to this species is oil and gas development which fragments the habitat, compacts soil and increases sedimentation that makes it difficult for plants to go dormant underground, encourages the invasion of non-native species, and increases airborne dust that decreases plant photosynthesis potential as it settles on plants. On BLM and Ute Tribal lands, all of the species habitat is leased for oil and gas development or is part of a current project (USFWS 2010). The species is also threatened by horticultural collection, off-road vehicle use, pesticide application, predation (cactus-borer beetle (Moneilema semipunctatum), rodents, and lagomorphs), grazing and trampling by livestock, climate change (drought) grazing, and genetic swamping from the more widespread S. wetlandicus (FNA 2003, USFWS 2010).

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from a single area a few miles across in the Pariette Draw region of Duchesne County, Utah, U.S.A.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Duchesne (49013), Uintah (49047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Small cactus with very short (2 mm) central hooked or straight spines.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Sclerocactus brevispinus is much smaller than either S. glaucus or S. wetlandicus and retains the vegetative characteristics of juvenile S. wetlandicus individuals in adult flowering plants. For a full morphological comparison between Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus (sensu stricto), and S. wetlandicus, see USFWS (2009).
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Reproduction Comments: Dispersal vectors include ants, birds, rodents, rain-splash, and surface water movement (USFWS 2005b).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Endemic to highly saline and alkaline fine soils, restricted to clay badlands within a single geologic formation in Utah. Occurs on exposed clay hills and in saltbush and sagebrush flats in areas that are sparsely vegetated. 1400-1500 m (FNA 2003, USFWS 2010)
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Cultivated ornamental, Showy wildflower
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Dec2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Morse, Larry E. (1996), minor rev. K. Gravuer (2009), rev. A. Treher (2015)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jul1997
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JENNIFER SNYDER

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Nitschke-Sinclear, J. 1999. 1985 Sclerocactus glaucus survey map updated with Sclerocactus glaucus/Sclerocactus brevispinus boundary.

  • Tepedino, V. J., T. L. Griswold, and W. R. Bowlin. 2010. Reproductive biology, hybridization and flower visitors of the rare Sclerocactus taxa in Utah's Uinatah Basin. Western North American Naturalist 70(3): 377-386.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2005a. Pariette Cactus Fact Sheet Sclerocactus brevispinus. Accessed online: http://www.fws.gov/utahfieldoffice/Documents/Plants/Handouts/Pariette%20Cactus%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition To List Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette cactus) as an Endangered or Threatened Species; Taxonomic Change From Sclerocactus glaucus to Sclerocactus brevispinus, S. glaucus, and S. wetlandicus. Federal Register 72(180): 53211-53222.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Taxonomic Change of Sclerocactus Glaucus to Three Separate Species. Federal Register 74(177): 47112-47117.

  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Recovery outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus). Prepared by the Utah Ecological Services Field Office. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Pariette%20Cactus_Recovery%20Outline_Apr%202010.pdf

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich and L.C. Higgins. (Eds.) 2003. A Utah Flora. 3rd edition. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, U.S.A. 912 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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