Scleria triglomerata - Michx.
Whip Nutrush
Other Common Names: whip nutrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Scleria triglomerata Michx. (TSN 40318)
French Common Names: sclérie à trois glomérules
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133750
Element Code: PMCYP0R0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Scleria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scleria triglomerata
Taxonomic Comments: Scleria flaccida and S. nitida are included in S. triglomerata, according to Kartesz (1994, 1999).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Sep2002
Global Status Last Changed: 10Aug1988
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Scleria triglomerata is widespread in the eastern United States and grows in a variety of habitats. It is common in the Southeast (including Florida), uncommon or local in Puerto Rico and in the northern and western portions of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (13Jun2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (S1), Delaware (S2), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S3?), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S1S2), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S1), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S5), Nebraska (S1S2), New Jersey (S4), New York (S1), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (SH), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Medium) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in southern Ontario, the eastern United States from Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Minnesota, Nebraska, and Texas, and in Puerto Rico (Kartesz 1999).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size Comments: Uncommon or local over much of the northern part of its range, and in Puerto Rico.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: In Ohio, Scleria triglomerata may be threatened by the overgrowth of woody species due to succession (McCance and Burns 1984).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in southern Ontario, the eastern United States from Massachusetts south to Florida, west to Minnesota, Nebraska, and Texas, and in Puerto Rico (Kartesz 1999).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003), Litchfield (09005)*, Middlesex (09007), New London (09011)
DE Kent (10001), Sussex (10005)
MA Bristol (25005), Franklin (25011)*, Hampden (25013)*, Hampshire (25015)*, Middlesex (25017)*, Nantucket (25019), Norfolk (25021), Worcester (25027)
MD Anne Arundel (24003), Baltimore County (24005), Caroline (24011), Dorchester (24019), Prince Georges (24033), St. Marys (24037), Wicomico (24045), Worcester (24047)
MI Allegan (26005), Cass (26027)*, Ingham (26065)*, Jackson (26075)*, Kalamazoo (26077)*, Lake (26085), Livingston (26093)*, Monroe (26115), Muskegon (26121), Newaygo (26123), Oceana (26127), St. Clair (26147), St. Joseph (26149)*, Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MN Anoka (27003), Carver (27019)*, Dakota (27037), Hennepin (27053)*, Ramsey (27123)*, Scott (27139)*, Sherburne (27141), Washington (27163), Wright (27171)*
NE Garfield (31071), Jefferson (31095), Saunders (31155)
NY Albany (36001)*, Nassau (36059), Suffolk (36103), Warren (36113)
OH Athens (39009), Erie (39043), Fairfield (39045), Fulton (39051), Gallia (39053), Henry (39069), Jackson (39079), Lawrence (39087), Lucas (39095), Pike (39131), Wood (39173)*
PA Bedford (42009)*, Berks (42011)*, Bucks (42017)*, Carbon (42025)*, Chester (42029)*, Delaware (42045)*, Huntingdon (42061)*, Lackawanna (42069)*, Lancaster (42071)*, Lehigh (42077)*, Pike (42103)*
RI Washington (44009)
WI Adams (55001)*, Burnett (55013), Chippewa (55017)*, Columbia (55021), Dane (55025), Dunn (55033)*, Eau Claire (55035)*, Grant (55043)*, Green (55045)*, Green Lake (55047), Iowa (55049)*, Jackson (55053), Juneau (55057), Kenosha (55059)*, La Crosse (55063)*, Marquette (55077)*, Monroe (55081), Richland (55103)*, Sauk (55111), Trempealeau (55121)*, Walworth (55127), Waukesha (55133)*, Waushara (55137)
WV Barbour (54001), Boone (54005)*, Fayette (54019), Greenbrier (54025)*, Kanawha (54039)*, Monroe (54063)*, Preston (54077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Concord (01070005)+*, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Farmington (01080207)+*, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Thames (01100003)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+
02 Upper Hudson (02020001)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Severn (02060004)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+*, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
04 Upper Fox (04030201)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+*, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Sandusky (04100011)+
05 Tygart Valley (05020001)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+*, Lower New (05050004)+, Upper Kanawha (05050006)+*, Lower Kanawha (05050008)+*, Coal (05050009)+*, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+
07 Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+*, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+*, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+*, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Trempealeau (07040005)+*, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+*, Red Cedar (07050007)+*, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Sugar (07090004)+*
10 Lower Platte (10200202)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Lower Little Blue (10270207)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial sedge with thick knotty roots, triangular stems up to 1 m tall, leaves less than 1 cm wide, and white seeds.
Technical Description: Rhizomes clustered, nodulose, stout, hard. Culms 0.4-1 m tall, usually somewhat cespitose, sharply triangular, more or less glabrous, somewhat scabrous upwards. Leaves 3-9 mm wide, rigid, scabrous on the margins and keel, sometimes slightly pubescent. Sheaths not winged, pilose or glabrous, the lower ones purplish. Contra-ligule rigid, short, ovate, hairy or glabrous. Inflorescence in about 3 fascicles, few to many-flowered, terminal or axillary, the lateral on erect peduncles, these often becoming filiform and pendulous on plants growing in deep shade. Bracts foliaceous, lanceolate, long-acuminate-attenuate, ciliate or glabrous. Scales of staminate spikelets lanceolate, acuminate-attenuate, brownish or often purplish-tinged. Pistillate scales ovate, the midrib excurrent and often awn-like. Achene 2-3 (-3.5) mm long, ovoid-subglobose, obtuse, smooth, shining, bright-white, subtended by an obscurely 3-angled disk (the hypogynium), which in this species is low and covered with a whitish, siliceous-like, papillose crust, the extreme base of the achene narrowed below the disk. (Fairey 1967, with additions from Godfrey and Wooten 1981) Includes S. nitida and S. flaccida, distinguished by Fernald (1950) and Gleason (1952) as follows: both have the achenes blunt rather than pointed, and distinctly longer than thick, and the ventral strip of the leaf-sheath pubescent, contrasting with the glabrous ligule. S. nitida and S. flaccida differ in habit and habitat: S. nitida having 1-few culms from ligneous elongate or loosely forking rhizomes, flowering only at summit; S. flaccida having numerous cespitose culms from a relatively soft and densely branched base, with capillary lateral flowering branches as well as terminal inflorescences; S. nitida found in dry places, S. flaccida in swamps (Fernald 1950). Recent authors have not maintained the distinctions even at the varietal level.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Hypogynium obviously present, covered with a rough white crust, not tuberculate; leaves 3-9 mm wide; achenes smooth, 2-3 mm long. S. minor is generally smaller, with leaves 1-2.5 mm wide and achenes 1.5-2 mm long. S. oligantha has the hypogynium yellowish rather than white, and supporting 8-9 small, round, granulose-spiculose tubercles. Shaded individuals of S. triglomerata may be distinguishable from S. oligantha only by the mature achenes. (Fairey 1967, Godfrey and Wooten 1981)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Pistillate and staminate spikes generally mixed within a given inflorescence. Virtually all Cyperaceae are wind-pollinated. The seeds have been found in the stomachs of various birds (Ridley 1930); they are thus probably distributed on birds' feet or feathers.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: A variety of dry to wet, open to partly open situations, often on sandy soil: pine lands, pine barrens, savannas, thickets, open woods, wood borders, meadows, fields, prairie, marsh borders, swamps (the last only listed for "Scleria flaccida"), Sphaghnum sphagnum bogs (listed for Pennsylvania only). (Fairey 1967, Fernald 1950, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Godfrey and Wooten 1981, Hough 1983, McCance and Burns 1984, Radford et al. 1968, Read 1976, Rhoads and Klein 1993, Voss 1985). When S. nitida is treated as a separate species its habitat is listed as usually dry (Hough 1983, Gleason 1952, Fernald 1950); when S. flaccida is treated as a separate species, its habitat is listed as wet or damp (Fernald 1950). Some authors consider S. minor to be a variety of this species; it is found in damp to wet situations similar to the above, and also bogs (Fairey 1967, Radford et al. 1968).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: MacBryde, B., rev.; 1st: Stover, M.E., 3/95.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., and D.J. White, eds. 1982. Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario. Part 1. National Museum Natural Science, Ottawa.

  • Bryson, Charles T. 2002. Preliminary abundance and range estimates for Cyperaceae species of Mississippi. Handwritten notes provided to Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 100 pp.

  • Clark, F.H. 2004. Scleria triglomerata Michx. (Tall Nutrush, Whip Nutrush) Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. (http://www.newfs.org/docs/pdf/scleriatriglomerata.PDF).

  • Core, E. L. 1936. The American species of Scleria. Brittonia 2:1-105.

  • Crow, Garrett E. and C. Barre Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and wetland plants of northeastern North America: A revised and enlarged edition or Norman C. Fassett's a manual of aquatic plants. Volume two angiosperms: Monocotyledons. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin. 456 pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fairey, J. E., III. 1967. The genus Scleria in the southeastern United States. Castanea 32(1):37-71.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. 608 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gaddy, L. L. 1986. Twelve new ant-dispersed species from the southern Appalachians. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113(3):247-251.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 712 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Moore, J. W. 1973. A catalogue of the flora of Cedar Creek Natural History Area. Bell Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper 12. 28 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Read, R.H. 1976. Endangered and threatened vascular plants of Wisconsin. Technical Bull. No. 92, Scientific Areas Preservation Council, Dept. Natural Resources, Madison, WI. 58 pp.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA. 636 pp.

  • Ridley, H.N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve & Co., Ltd., Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom. 744 pp.

  • Soper, J.H. 1962. Some genera of restricted range in the Carolinian flora of Canada. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 34(1):3-56.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

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