Scirpus longii - Fern.
Long's Bulrush
Other Common Names: Long's bulrush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Scirpus longii Fern. (TSN 40264)
French Common Names: scirpe de Long
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142877
Element Code: PMCYP0Q0Y0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Scirpus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scirpus longii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 09Jan2005
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Scirpus longii is a regional endemic of the northeast Atlantic Coastal Plain with between 50 and 55 extant element occurrences. Determining numbers of plants is difficult in this clonal, rhizomatous species, but with "tens of thousands" of ramets each in New Jersey and Massachusetts (abundant over 105 acres at one site in MA), greater than 10,000 ramets in Nova Scotia (including sites where the species is dominant over 37 and 12 acres), and with two dense stands of from 5-10 acres in size in Maine and a dense stand of 7 acres in size in Rhode Island, we estimated that there are at least 100,000 ramets globally. The species has been extirpated from New York and probably also from Connecticut, where its 1 documented historical site may have been destroyed by industrial development. The species is apparently in decline in the southern portion of its range (NJ, NY, CT) and is stable (with our knowledge of its abundance greatly expanding) in the northern portion of its range (MA, ME, and NS).

The extant populations are widely scattered from Nova Scotia to southern New Jersey. Given our present state of knowledge, the species has its greatest abundance in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, in eastern Massachusetts, and in Nova Scotia. The species is declining in New Jersey, primarily as a result of degrading and destruction of its wetland habitat. Although two New England occurrences are known to have been extirpated, and two more no longer support S. longii for unknown reasons, 25 extant, newly-discovered occurrences have been documented since 1987. In Massachusetts alone, targeted searches since 1997 have documented eleven previously unknown occurrences. Network botanists in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia agree that suitable, unsearched appropriate habitat still exists in their jurisdictions and anticipate that additional new occurrences will be discovered. The ability of S. longii to persist for extended periods in a vegetative state has probably contributed to the species being overlooked.

Scirpus longii apparently requires periodic fires or other disturbances, such as flooding or herbivory, to stimulate significant sexual reproduction. The species is therefore vulnerable to extirpation through the loss of open habitat by woody succession where the natural fire regime has been altered or suppressed. However, over half (approximately 31) of the occurrences are currently on protected lands, and so controlled fire managment may be possible at many sites. Unintentional fires are also known to occur at some New England sites.

Nation: United States
National Status: N2
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (23Jun2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SH), Maine (S2), Massachusetts (S2), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (S2), New York (SX), Rhode Island (S1)
Canada Nova Scotia (S3)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (28Apr2017)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This globally vulnerable, long?lived wetland plant is restricted in Canada to a small region of Nova Scotia that supports nearly half of the world?s population. The species is increasingly threatened by competition and shading from the invasive Glossy Buckthorn and native shrubs. Peat mining could be a future threat. Limited sexual reproduction and hybridization may also reduce survival of this sedge.

Status history: Designated Special Concern in April 1994. Status re?examined and confirmed in April 2017.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Currently found in Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Nova Scotia, and historically known from Connecticut and New York.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Based on estimated acreages of occupany throughout its range.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Fifty to fifty-five current occurrences. Fifteen occurrences in Massachusetts; ten in Maine; one in New Hampshire; eleven in New Jersey; thirteen or fourteen in Nova Scotia; one in Rhode Island. As of 2004, there are greater than 50 separate occurrences.

Population Size Comments: This species is often locally abundant, dominant or codominant in appropriate, pristine habitat. Massachusetts is now believed to support the single largest population of Scirpus longii, with an estimated 1/4 of the world's acreage occupied by S.longii at a single site. At this site, it is a codominat or frequent species over 105 acres, with tens of thousands of ramets estimated to be present. Massachusetts also supports a ten-acre stand, a seven-acre stand, two five-acre stands, and a 2-3 acre stand. In New Jersey, tens of thousands of plants are present, covering acres. Nova Scotia estimates that greater than 10,000 ramets are present in that province. Maine has two large occurrences, with dense stands over greater than 5 acres, each.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Some (13-40) EOs with good viability. Massachusetts currently has five with good viability (as strictly-defined by EO specs as occurring in near-pristine habitat); Nova Scotia has six, Maine has seven; New Jersey has six; and Rhode Island has one.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Potential threats include fire supression, wetland degradation, water level/hydologic changes and water quality degradation (euutrophication) and development (of uplands) and resultant changes in plant community dynamics (such as establishment of Phragmites australis), off road vehicles, and succession. In Canada there is potential threat from hydroelectric development.

It is not known whether this species is declining or remaining stable in the extant occurrences. Current New England poplations appear to be fairly stable and long-lived. In some cases it is supsected that populations size and habitat areas occupied have been reduced (compared to historic levels) due to hydrologic alterations such as river channelization and wetland ditching.

The large number of extirpated historic locations indicates the species may be declining. However, recent new discoveries resulting from targeted searches in New England suggest that the species may also be largely overlooked. Certainly, its tendency to persist indefinitely in the vegetative state contributes to this problem.

As with other threatened shallow-wetland species, human manipulation of the watershed or natural changes resulting in eutrophication, siltation or succession reduce the number of favorable habitats. Competition from the invasion of purple loosestrife (Lythurm salicaria) is a new threat from Maine to New Jersey; the establishment of common reed (Phragmites australis) is now viewed as an even greater threat to this species in New England. Subsidence of land forms along the Atlantic coast could raise habitat water levels and prevent culm formation.

Sorrie (1987) reported that all Massachusetts historic sites have been "ditched, diked or otherwise rendered unfit (however, the species has subseuently been found to occur in at least one of these historic sites). In Nova Scotia, Hill (1992) reports that muskrat disruption threatens several sites. In New England, while muskrat herbivory is present, it is not considered a serious threat, and may even be considered beneficial because it may stimulate flowering culm reproduction.

Known locations for SCIRPUS LONGII need protection from development of the immediate habitat as well as the surrounding watershed, to protect the habitat from significant changes in hydrology and nutrient inputs. As with other species in similar habitat, protection of the watershed is as important as protection of the habitat itself. Significant sites should be assured long-term protection and research and monitoring instituted to determine if populations are increasing or decreasing.

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: While previously thought to be declining throughout its range, the discovery of many new occurrences in the northern portions of the range have called this theory into question. Between 1997 and 2001, eleven new populations of Scirpus longii were discovered in Massachusetts alone, indicating that this species may be widely overlooked in appropriate riparian habitat. It is expected that additional targeted searches in New England and Nova Scotia would (conservatively) document ten to twenty additional occurrences. The species is still believed to be in decline in New Jersey.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Although many historic sites have been extirpated or failed to be re-discovered, many "new" (although obviously old) occurrences have been found in the northern part of its range since the late 1980's. Therefore, our knowledge of its historic and current abundance are apparently inadequate to make a presumption about its long-term trend.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Long-lived perenial (some clones estimated to be approximately 200 years old). At some locations, the species continues to persist despite past alterations to hydrology (rivercourse alteration, wetland ditching). This plant is probably vulnerable to competition with Phragmites australis.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Oligotrophic fens, marshes, and peaty swales.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Currently found in Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Nova Scotia, and historically known from Connecticut and New York.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NYextirpated, RI
Canada NS

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003)*
MA Bristol (25005), Essex (25009), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Plymouth (25023), Suffolk (25025)*, Worcester (25027)
ME Oxford (23017), York (23031)
NH Carroll (33003), Strafford (33017)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007), Cape May (34009)*, Mercer (34021)*, Ocean (34029)
NY Kings (36047)*, Queens (36081)*
RI Washington (44009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Concord (01070005)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Raritan (02030105)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial sedge that forms dense, leafy tussocks, with stems growing up to 1.5 m tall. The plants rarely flower, but colonize sites vegetatively by means of rhizomes. Infrequent and sporadic flowering occurs from late May into August.
Technical Description: Much like Scirpus cyperinus (see Gleason and Cronquist, 1991) except "colonial from long, stout rhizomes, and rarely flowering; base of involucre blackish and glutinous; scales 2-3 mm, blackish, rounded and not mucronulate at the tip; achenes reddish-brown." (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Scirpus longii may be characterized by mature bristles evidently surpassing the scales and giving the inflorescence a woolly look; colonial from long rhizomes; reddish brown achenes. (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: SCIRPUS LONGII reproduces by both sexual and asexual means. Flowering occurs over a long season, from late May to late August, with some latitudinal progression of flowering and fruiting, beginning earliest south. Reported flowering times in New Jersey populations range from May 26 to August 30. It appears that the production of flowering culms is stimulated by dry conditions due to seasonal drought and often following a burn-over of the site (Schuyler, 1963). Schuyler (1963) observed that 7 of 18 herbarium specimens with culms showed charred basal leaves and that 9 of 18 New Jersey populations occur along railroads where fires are more frequent. Fire appears to stimulate culm formation. Evidence for this is reported in observations by Schuyler and Stasz (1985) that SCIRPUS LONGII produced prolific culms the year following a late summer fire. They compared this New Jersey pine barren swale population with other New Jersey populations from unburned sites the same year and found the number of flowering culms produced to be significantly less at unburned sites. The production of flowering culms in dry conditions appears to be an adaptation for timing seed production to conditions favorable to seedling establishment. At the same site, culm production was followed by abundant seedling establishment close to parent plants, but also extending beyond the swale to areas previously dominated by shrubs. The fire had removed most shrubs and trees and had consumed the humus layer, leaving carbon and ash over a mud, sand and bog ore substrate. Tallest seedlings, a few producing culms by mid August, occurred in these drier areas, formerly dominated by shrubs. Thus fire enhances seedling establishment by reducing competition, increasing available nutrients and light, and opening the mineral substrate. As observed by Schuyler and Stasz, it may allow the species to expand into habitats more favorable for sexual reproduction. Hill (1992) found that muskrats induced flowering when they consumed rhizomes. A transplanted individual in Maine flowered after it was accidentally cut by a lawn mower (L. Eastman, pers. comm.). Vegetative reproduction occurs by a thick elongate rhizome which spreads the species rather evenly over the substrate. Tussocks are not formed. Basal parts of the plants are often submerged throughout summer, and although some flowering culms are observed in such situations, vegetative reproduction is probably favored by wet conditions (Schuyler 1963).
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Habitat Comments: Open, peaty swales with fluctuating water levels. The peaty depressions are dominated by sedges or are comparatively open, with Sphagnum and dried algal mats. Also in river meadows, open areas in swamps, and disturbed habitats, including ditches, abandoned cranberry bogs, and powerline rights-of-way. Periodic fire is probably important to maintain the openness of the sites and to initiate flowering and seed germination.

SCIRPUS LONGII is an Atlantic Coastal Plain species occurring in wet meadows, graminoid swales, sedge meadows, northern New England acidic fens, swamps and limnogenous fens, riverwash fens/marshes, and fresh water marshes. Its range is from western Nova Scotia to southern New Jersey. Eleven sites are known from Maine. Other populations occur along the coast in eastern Massachusetts (Norfolk, Middlesex, Bristol Counties), southern New Hampshire, central Connecticut, southern Rhode Island, and from six counties of southern New Jersey (Mercer, Ocean, Atlantic, Cape May, Burlington and Camden). The species is absent from NY where it is ranked SX (Clemants 1987). This disjunct distribution was produced by the late Tertiary-early Pleistocene submergence of the continental shelf which left isolated relict populations of this "old coastal plain species" (Fernald 1943). The species has long been reported as occurring in southeast North Carolina (Fernald 1943), however re-examination of the specimens from this one occurrence found them to be misidentified. SCIRPUS LONGII has been dropped from the state list (Schafale 1987). This species has been observed most often in open shallow-water habitats, described as wet soggy meadows or swales, sedge meadows, sandy-peat bogs, though SPHAGNUM is usually absent (Schuyler and Stasz 1985), or depressions, associated with river-stream floodplains, or resulting from human excavations. The shallow water of these habitats is often seasonally fluctuating, subject to summer drought. Some collections are from dry pond beds. Substrate is often sandy, chiefly Cretaceous or Tertiary sands and clay (Fernald 1911), covered with the organic black peat or muck which collects in slow moving or stagnant wetlands. One New Jersey site is a human constructed pond. Associated species include other wetland species, many which are themselves rare or endangered. In New Jersey these include: RHYNCHOSPORA KNIESKERNII, R. PALLIDA, EUPATORIUM RESINOSUM, GENTIANA AUTUMNALIS, as well as CAREX WALTERIANA, C. BULLATA, C. LIVIDA, CHAMAEDAPHNE CALYCULATA, CLADIUM MARISCOIDES. JUNCUS CANADENSIS, MUHLENBERGIA TORREYANA, WOODWARDIA VIRGINICA, IRIS SPP, LOPHIOLA SEPTENTRIONALIS, LACHNANTHES TINCTORIA, CAREX LASIOCARPA, SPIRAEA TOMENTOSA, VACCINIUM MACROCARPUM, and CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Scirpus longii appears to be adapted to fire and reproduction seems to be most apparent in burned areas, suggesting that occasional burnings may be a necessary part of a management regime for the species (Schuyler and Stasz, 1985).
Restoration Potential: Observed natural proliferation and expansion of the species following fires indicated the possibility of manipulating habitats to improve the species' presence. Cultivation of collected plants in a controlled dry greenhouse environment has been successful at stimulating culm formation (Schuyler 1963). This indicates the possibility of further species manipulation by accompanying burning with seeding. Collected seeds have also been germinated following several storage methods by personnel at the New England Plant Conservation Program (K. Slater per. comm.).
Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring is needed to determine year to year changes in population sizes. Observations at several known sites in 1983 and 1985 found no culm production. A more detailed record of water level changes, climate conditions, and the response of the population to these conditions, for example the relative number of vegetative individuals vs. culm-producing individuals in a given season, would help to determine management requirements.

Management Programs: Verified occurrences may be managed by controlled burning to stimulate flowering, to provide suitable habitats for seedling establishment and to reduce competition in the surrounding area, so the population may expand. Management might also include seeding following a burn, flooding areas to remove woody plants, or transplants of propagated plants.
Management Research Needs: The major research need is to determine the health of existing populations and to determine if they are stable, increasing or decreasing. In conjunction with this is the need to identify management practices to maintain/enhance existing populations. Some preliminary work in aging clones was conducted in Nova Scotia by Hill and Johansson (1992). Further work is needed to refine the technique and to determine if the methods can be used elsewhere. One drawback to the method is that it is destructive sampling. Recent innovations in GPS and GIS technology know provide accurate, relatively low-cost, methods for measuring small changes in clonal growth patterns. Short-term monitoring of populations can now be correlated to weather, yearly hydrologic events, and other factors, which can be used to determine whether individual populations are increasing, decreasing, or remaining stable. The role of fire needs to be further researched as well. While the Atsion burn in New Jersey spurred flowering, and created a good seed bed for seedling establishment, woody plants in the former burn area now out compete much of the Long's bulrush, indicating that the benefits of fire at this site were relatively short lived. The role of fire in the large limnogenous fens in Maine and Nova Scotia should be investigated to determine if fire merely knocks back woody plants, thereby limiting competition, or if it also creates a seed bed suitable for germination.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An Element Occurrence for Scirpus longii Fern.is any natural occurrence of one or more plants and the habitat on which the species is/are present. Scirpus longii is endemic to northeastern North America, ranging from New Jersey to Nova Scotia. Scirpus longii can be distinguished from other similar species by its reddish-brown mature achenes and individually pedicelled spikelets (Rawinski 2001). Culm formation is sporadic and large populations may remain vegetative for years (Hill and Johansson 1992). Rhizome width is the best field character to identify vegetative individuals of Scirpus longii (Rawinski 2001). The largest extant populations of Scirpus longii are most often quantified in terms of area covered rather than counts of ramets or genets. As such, the following specs are based on vegetative cover rather than counts of ramets or genets.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Justification: The distance for unoccupied but suitable habitat is set equal to the distance for unsuitable habitat because populations are usually local and often occur in an ecologically heterogeneous environment.
Date: 15Dec2007
Author: Coppola, M.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Populations where Scirpus longii is the dominant or co-dominant vegetative cover within one acre (4046 square meters) or more of continuous habitat deserve this rank. If Scirpus longii cover is frequent, but not co-dominant over a several acre area, an A-rank may also be considered. Occurrences that have infrequent cover over an area one acre or more may be down-ranked to a B-Rank. A-ranked populations should have sufficient sexual/asexual recruitment to maintain current numbers. For an A ranked population the habitat should have high levels of natural integrity and functioning natural processes. The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO should be excellent to receive an A rank.

Justification: EOs in the future probably will not significantly exceed the best that currently exist, so the A rank criteria are set based on the characteristics of the largest occurrences known to have persisted at the same site for decades. Intact wetland complexes with no or minimal "unnatural" hydrological impacts are essential for A-ranked populations. Scirpus longii prefers open, sunny wetland areas that occur on generally sandy substrates that experience pronounced seasonal flooding (Rawinski 2001). As such, A-ranked occurrences should be in wetland systems with naturally fluctuating hydrology. Fertile culm formation in Scirpus longii is often stimulated by stress to the plant in the form of a natural disturbance such as fire, flooding, ice scour and herbivory (Hill and Johansson 1992, Rawinski 2001). To maintain long-term viability, A-ranked populations should experience adequate levels of natural disturbance that will promote sexual reproduction. The surrounding landscape of A-ranked populations should encompass a sufficient natural buffer to ensure that wetland hydrology and water quality will be maintained in the long-term.

Good Viability: Populations where Scirpus longii is the dominant or co-dominant vegetative cover within 0.99-0.25 acres (4006-1011 square meters) of continuous habitat deserve this rank. If Scirpus longii cover is frequent, but not co-dominant for an area over 1 acre, a B-rank may also be considered. Occurrences that have infrequent cover over a 0.99-0.25 acres (4006-1011 square meters) area may be down-ranked to a C-Rank. B-ranked populations should have sufficient sexual/asexual recruitment to maintain current numbers. Populations likely would occur in good to excellent quality, habitats that may show low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, but are largely undisturbed. The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be good to excellent to receive a B rank. B-ranked populations may be adjacent to agricultural or cleared lands, or low-density development, but should have no direct or significant long-term impacts. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at the rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next highest rank (A-rank).
Fair Viability: Populations where Scirpus longii is the dominant or co-dominant vegetative cover within 0.24 acres to 10 square yards (971-8 square meters) of continuous habitat deserve this rank. If Scirpus longii cover is frequent, but not co-dominant for an area over 0.24 acres a C-rank may also be considered. Occurrences that have infrequent cover over a 0.24 acres to 10 square yards (971-8 square meters) area may be down-ranked to a D-Rank. C-ranked populations should have sufficient sexual/asexual recruitment to maintain current numbers. Populations occur in fair to excellent habitats, and may incur moderate levels of anthropogenic disturbance. The increased stress brought on by moderate anthropogenic disturbance, particularly to smaller populations, necessitates a "C" rank. The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence, and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be fair to excellent to receive a C rank. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at the rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next highest rank (B-rank).

Justification: Threats to Scirpus longii are primarily anthropogenic in origin (Rawinski 2001). C-ranked populations frequently occur in habitats that are significantly disturbed and fragmented. Degraded habitats may contain large numbers of invasive species. Portions of habitat may be ditched and/or dammed, thus compromising the hydrology of the wetland. The remaining upland buffer of such sites is often less than optimal. Natural disturbance regimes may be absent or significantly compromised. C-ranked occurrences are recoverable, but may require substantial management efforts.

Poor Viability: Populations where Scirpus longii is the dominant or co-dominant vegetative cover within areas of less than 10 square yards (8 square meters) of continuous habitat deserve this rank. If Scirpus longii cover is frequent, but not co-dominant for an area over 10 square yards (8 square meters) a D-rank may also be considered. Populations likely would occur in habitats with moderate to high levels of anthropogenic disturbance. The integrity of biotic and abiotic factors, community structure, and processes within (condition) and surrounding (landscape context) the occurrence and the degree to which they affect the continued existence of the EO can be poor to excellent to receive a D rank. Occurrences exceeding minimum landscape and habitat conditions and other criteria described for a defined population size remain at D rank specified by the population size unless the population size is close to that required by the next highest rank (C-rank).
Justification: An Element Occurrence for Scirpus longii Fern.is any natural occurrence of one or more plants and the habitat on which the species is/are present. Scirpus longii is endemic to northeastern North America, ranging from New Jersey to Nova Scotia. Scirpus longii can be distinguished from other similar species by its reddish-brown mature achenes and individually pedicelled spikelets (Rawinski 2001). Culm formation is sporadic and large populations may remain vegetative for years (Hill and Johansson 1992). Rhizome width is the best field character to identify vegetative individuals of Scirpus longii (Rawinski 2001). The largest extant populations of Scirpus longii are most often quantified in terms of area covered rather than counts of ramets or genets. As such, the following specs are based on vegetative cover rather than counts of ramets or genets.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 15Dec2007
Author: Coppola, M.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Russell, C.; Rev. Snyder, D., rev. D. Snyder (1997), rev. M. D. Cullina (2005)
Management Information Edition Date: 01Dec1996
Management Information Edition Author: R. JOHNSON (1990)REV. D. SNYDER AND J. LORTIE (1997)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jun1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cappel, E.D. 1954. The genus Scirpus in North Carolina. Journal Elisha Mitchell Science Soc. 70(1): 75-91.

  • Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2017. COSEWIC Assessment Results, April 2017. Online. Available: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/.

  • Crow, G.E. 1982. New England's Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Region 5, Newton Corner, MA).

  • Fairbrothers, D. E. 1979. Endangered, threatened and rare vascular plants of the Pine Barrens and their biogeography. Ch. 22 in Forman, R. T. T. (ed.) Pine Barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York, 395-405 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1911. A new species of Scirpus for MA and NJ. Rhodora 13:4-8.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1913. A new station for Scirpus longii. Rhodora 15:202.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1943. Scirpus longii in N. Carolina. Rhodora 45:55-56.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hill, N. 1990 (updated in 1994). Status report on the Long's bulrush Scirpus longii Fern. in Canada. Report submitted to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. 27 pp.

  • Hill, N.M. and M.E. Johansson. 1992 Geographical distribution and ecology of Long's bulrush, Scirpus longii (Cyperaceae) in Canada. Rhodora 94 (878): 141-155.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Keddy, P.A. and I.C. Wisheu. 1989. Ecology, biogeography, and conservation of coastal plain plants: some general principles from the study of Nova Scotian wetlands. Rhodora 91(865):72-94.

  • Lortie, J. 1996a. Rangewide status report for Scirpus longii. Woodlot Alternatives, Inc., Topsham, Maine. In preparation.

  • Lortie, J.P. 1996b. A rangewide assessment of Scirpus longii, Long's bulrush. Unpublished report, Woodlot Alternatives, Inc., Topsham, Maine, USA.

  • Murray, N. 1996. Letter to J. Lortie regarding Scirpus longii populations in Connecticut, 23 April 1996. State of Connecticut, department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Hartford, Connecticut.

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