Schwalbea americana - L.
Chaffseed
Other Common Names: chaffseed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Schwalbea americana L. (TSN 34027)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144235
Element Code: PDSCR1Q010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
Image 12193

© North Carolina Natural Heritage Program

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Schwalbea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Schwalbea americana
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species, in monotypic genus. Schwalbea australis was formerly regarded as a separate species but is now included here (Kartesz 1994, 1999).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Mar2017
Global Status Last Changed: 23Mar2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Formerly found throughout much of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from New England to Florida and west to eastern Texas, as well as in a few inland places. Now extirpated throughout much of this historical range. Extant sites often have few individuals, and the species is apparently declining in abundance at many sites. Much of this species' former habitat has long-since been converted to farmland. Housing development, road building, over-collection, and succession of its open habitat to woody vegetation (due to fire suppression) are significant documented threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Connecticut (SH), Delaware (SX), Florida (S1), Georgia (S2), Kentucky (SH), Louisiana (S1), Maryland (SX), Massachusetts (SH), Mississippi (SH), New Jersey (S1), New York (SX), North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S2), Tennessee (SX), Virginia (SH)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (29Sep1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Historically known from Massachusetts and New York south along the East Coast to Florida and west along the Gulf Coast states to Texas. Currently not found north of the Carolinas except in New Jersey. Historic or extirpated in several southern states as well.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Population Size Comments: Several Element Occurrences have about 100+ plants; Fort Bragg has about 6,000 plants; one occurrence in South Carolina has 2,000+.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Fire suppression allows succession to proceed to where competition for light excludes this species (Rawinski and Cassin 1986). Housing development and road building are the cause of extirpation of one of only two occurrences in New Jersey and were surely factors in the demise of some of the fifteen other historic occurrences. The single surviving New Jersey population occurs on state forest land within the Pinelands National Reserve but is nevertheless "extremely vulnerable" to road improvements (Snyder 1988). South Carolina occurrences are also threatened by development; one occurs among natural grasses of a poorly maintained ball field. Expansion of the field or "better" maintenance would threaten the species. This occurrence of 347 plants is the largest among those of the Francis Marion National Forest, which supports a total of 808 plants (Rayner 1986). Elsewhere in South Carolina intensive pine forest management and/or drainage of wetlands so as to disrupt the fluctuating wet to dry conditions which favor the species would threaten some occurrences (Kral 1983). In Florida, one population in Leon County was recently extirpated by residential development (Peters 1992). 

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Some sites have declines due to poor management and at some sites plants were not found in recent surveys (2015).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-90%
Long-term Trend Comments: No extant sites in CT, KY, MA, MD, MS, NY, TN, and VA. 

In Massachusetts, the Nantucket population, known since 1870, was last seen in 1963, an apparent victim of fire suppression and scrub oak succession. However, in Myles Standish State Forest in Plymouth and at the Montague Sandplain, no plants have been documented since the 1870s, despite a record of frequent burns in those pitch pine-scrub oak communities (Sorrie 1987).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Historically known from Massachusetts and New York south along the East Coast to Florida and west along the Gulf Coast states to Texas. Currently not found north of the Carolinas except in New Jersey. Historic or extirpated in several southern states as well.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DEextirpated, FL, GA, KY, LA, MA, MDextirpated, MS, NC, NJ, NYextirpated, SC, TNextirpated, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Bullock (01011), Geneva (01061)*, Macon (01087), Mobile (01097)*
CT New London (09011)*
FL Gadsden (12039)*, Leon (12073), Okaloosa (12091), Putnam (12107)*
GA Baker (13007), Colquitt (13071), Dougherty (13095), Early (13099)*, Miller (13201)*, Mitchell (13205), Pike (13231)*, Seminole (13253)*, Thomas (13275), Upson (13293)*, Worth (13321)
KY McCreary (21147)*, Wayne (21231)*
LA Allen (22003), Beauregard (22011)
MA Barnstable (25001)*, Bristol (25005)*, Dukes (25007)*, Franklin (25011)*, Nantucket (25019)*, Norfolk (25021)*, Plymouth (25023)*, Worcester (25027)*
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Prince Georges (24033)*, Worcester (24047)*
MS Jackson (28059)*, Simpson (28127)*
NC Bladen (37017)*, Cumberland (37051), Hoke (37093), Moore (37125)*, Pender (37141)*, Scotland (37165)
NJ Atlantic (34001)*, Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Cape May (34009)*, Cumberland (34011)*, Gloucester (34015)*, Monmouth (34025)*, Ocean (34029)*
NY Albany (36001)*
SC Berkeley (45015), Charleston (45019), Clarendon (45027), Florence (45041), Horry (45051), Jasper (45053), Lee (45061), Sumter (45085), Williamsburg (45089)
TN Coffee (47031)*, Franklin (47051)*, Moore (47127)*
VA Emporia (City) (51595)*, Greensville (51081)*, Sussex (51183)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Charles (01090001)+*, Cape Cod (01090002)+*, Thames (01100003)+*
02 Mohawk (02020004)+*, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Delaware Bay (02040204)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+*, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+*, Chincoteague (02040303)+*, Severn (02060004)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*
03 Nottoway (03010201)+*, Meheriin (03010204)+*, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+*, Black (03030006)+*, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+*, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+*, Lynches (03040202)+, Lumber (03040203)+*, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Black (03040205)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+*, Santee (03050112)+, Cooper (03050201)+, Broad-St. Helena (03050208)+*, Bulls Bay (03050209)+, Calibogue Sound-Wright River (03060110)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+*, Little (03110204)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+*, Upper Flint (03130005)+*, Lower Flint (03130008)+, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Spring (03130010)+*, Apalachicola (03130011)+*, Blackwater (03140104)+, Perdido (03140106)+, Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201)+*, Pea (03140202)+*, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+*, Mobile Bay (03160205)+*, Upper Leaf (03170004)+*, Escatawpa (03170008)+*
05 Upper Cumberland (05130101)+*, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+*, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+*
06 Upper Elk (06030003)+*, Upper Duck (06040002)+*
08 Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+
CC CC-40 (CC-40)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with mostly unbranched stems, usually 3-6 dm tall. Leaves are largest at the base of the plant and gradually diminish in size towards the top of the stem. The 2-lipped flowers are yellow, suffused with purple. This species is parasitic on the roots of a wide variety of woody and herbaceous plants. It is in bloom from April through June in the South and from June to late July in the North.
General Description: An erect perennial with unbranched stems or branched only at base, growing to 3-6 dm (to 8 dm, Musselman and Mann 1978), with solitary, two-lipped, yellow and purplish or reddish flowers. Leaves are largest at the base of the plant and gradually diminish in size towards the top of the stem. The 2-lipped flowers are yellow, suffused with purple. This species is parasitic on the roots of a wide variety of woody and herbaceous plants.

This species produces showy, insect-pollinated flowers; the high degree of zygomorphy elaborated for pollination by bees (Pennell 1935).

Technical Description: Stems: Unbranched or branched (up to a dozen, rarely more) only from the base, 3-6(8) dm, villous on upper stem, puberulent with ascending hairs on lower stem (Small 1933), entire plant "copiously covered by soft hairs," these glandular on cotyledons and first leaves, becoming simple on mature plant from loss of glandular heads; internodes terete, yellow-green, tinged with red or purple upwards.

Leaves alternate, all cauline, sessile, the lower sometimes spreading, but mostly all ascending or erect, overlapping in tight spiral, the smallest scale-like at stem base, the largest in the lower third of the stem (Kral 1983), leaves gradually smaller and narrower upwards, becoming bracteal leaves in inflorescence; blades entire, 2-4 cm (1-5 cm, Vincent 1982) long, elliptic-oval to lanceolate, rarely oblanceolate, acute or obscurely reticulate, slightly revolute (Kral 1983), the base cuneate; surface yellow-green or deep dull green with red undertones, both sides pale; villous-puberulent or strigillose (Small 1933); blade three-veined with veining impressed above, the midvein slightly raised beneath.

Inflorescence with flowers solitary in the uppermost axils ascending on short pedicels, forming a leafy, spike-like raceme (Gleason and Cronquist 1991); each pedicel 2.0-2.5 mm long (3-5 mm long according to Small 1933), villosulous, subtended by two linear bractlets 5-15 mm long, shorter than the calyx.

Flowers: Calyx 15-22 mm long, forming an irregular tube with five unequal lobes, each shorter than the tube, the tube strongly 10 to 12-nerved; calyx lobes acute or acuminate, the upper one short and narrow, 7-10 mm long (Small 1933), the lower pair well-united and broad, 20-22 mm long (Small 1933); corolla strongly two-lipped, about 30 mm long (about 15 mm long according to Musselman and Mann 1978) and 7 mm wide; lips about as long as the tube, yellow and distally purplish or reddish (rose-brown), the upper lip nearly straight, oblong, concave, entire or shallowly two-lobed (Kral 1983), the lower lip short, decurved, shallowly three-lobed, the throat with two slightly pubescent ridges, with folds extending inward from the sinuses (Gleason and Cronquist 1991); stamens 4, epipetalous, included and ascending in the upper lip, one pair shorter, the filaments slender, smooth, longer than the oblong, dorsifixed, nearly glabrous yellow anthers (Kral 1983); ovary superior, erect, bicarpellate, the slender glabrous style, 2-3 cm long, curved up and arching within the upper corolla lip in line with the filaments; the narrow capitate stigma protrudes slightly beyond.

Fruit a stout capsule, narrowly ellipsoid to oblong-cylindrical, glabrous, brown, 10-12 mm long at maturity, with septicidal dehiscence "its narrowed apex developing an annulix around and including within the persistent style base" (Kral 1983), a persistent calyx with 12 strongly projecting ribs (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Seeds numerous per fruit, pale greenish brown or yellowish tan, narrowly linear, somewhat flattened or compressed, slightly curved (Small 1933), hence the name chaffseed, about 2.5-3.0 mm (to 6.0 mm according to Musselman and Mann 1978) long, very minutely cancellate. (Gleason and Cronquist 1991; Kral 1983; Musselman and Mann 1978; Pennell 1935; Small 1933; Vincent 1982)

Diagnostic Characteristics: This species is most similar in its habit, appearance of flowers, and alternate leaves to other root parasites such as Castilleja (Kral 1983); however, it is distinguished by the presence of a posterior sepal and two bractlets subtending each flower (Pennell 1935).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: This species produces showy, insect-pollinated flowers; the high degree of zygomorphy elaborated for pollination by bees (Pennell 1935).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Acidic, sandy or peaty soils in open pine flatwoods, pitch pine lowland forests, seepage bogs, palustrine pine savannahs, and other grass- and sedge-dominated plant communities. Frequently grows in ecotonal areas between peaty wetlands and xeric sandy soils. In these situations, individuals sometimes extend well into the drier communities, but seldom into the areas that support species characteristic of wetter soils. Surrounding plant communities are typically species-rich.

Schwalbea americana is primarily a Coastal Plain species of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, with historic locations ranging from Massachusetts to Florida to east Texas. Exceptions include: a historic occurrence in sandplains near Albany, New York, which Pennell (1935) considered a remnant population of possible glacial migration along the shores of the Hudson River; a westernmost occurrence in Tennessee and Kentucky, these from sandstone knobs and ridges of the Cumberland Plateau and Highland Rim; and an inland site on the Montague Sandplain near the Connecticut River and a sandplain in Hubbardston in Massachusetts. Characteristically the species occurs in sandy (sandy peat, loamy sand, peat loam), acidic, seasonally moist soils, often subject to fires in the growing season. "Though usually surrounded by xeric soil vegetation, most often it is found on moist to seasonally wet sites such as pitch pine lowlands, moist pine flatwoods and savannas, and ecotonal areas between peaty wetlands and xeric sandy soils"; throughout its range, Schwalbea americana "occurs in species-rich communities" (Rawinski and Cassin 1986). In South Carolina, plants are found in flatwoods rather than pine savannas, where it has only been observed once to have migrated into a savanna area from adjacent flatwoods (Porcher 1993). The flatwoods are generally dominated by Pinus palustris with Quercus stellata and Q. marilandica as associates. Some sites support only oaks now, although it is believed that longleaf pine was once a component (Porcher 1993). Tephrosia virginiana and Pterocaulon pycnostachyum are present in almost every site, which are sandy, moist to dry, grassy areas (Porcher 1993). The fire regime at these sites, either prescribed or natural (or a combination of both), is a mixture of growing-season and non-growing-season burns; it is unknown what mix best favors chaffseed (Porcher 1993). Growing-season burns maintain the grassy areas chaffseed depends upon for survival. In sites where grassy areas lie adjacent to woodlands, chaffseed is restricted to the grassy areas (Porcher 1993). In North Carolina, the species occurs on moist to dryish pine flatwoods, pine savannas, and on longleaf pine/oak sandhills, composed of Upper Cretaceous deep, white sands, at the western edge of the Coastal Plain. Habitats where Schwalbea americana occurs on Fort Bragg, North Carolina, can be summarized as follows: (1) upper ecotones of Streamhead Pocosins (shrubby headwaters and seepage areas), usually extending well out into longleaf pine/wiregrass (Pinus palustris/Aristida stricta) savannas and seldom down to where the ecotone supports moisture-requiring species such as Calamovilfa brevipilis, Panicum virgatum, Polygala lutea, Pinus serotina, Lyonia lucida, etc.; soils at these sites are usually loamy rather than clayey and thus support Quercus marilandica, Q. margarettiae, Stylodon carneus, Rhynchospora harveyi, *Lespedeza angustifolia, Ageratina aromatica, Ceanothus americana, and Cyperus plukenetii; (2) sites closer to Streamhead Pocosins or in shallow depressions in the landscape, showing an increase in soil moisture and supporting *Rhexia alifanus, *Xyris caroliniana, Buchnera floridana, Ilex glabra, Pycnanthemum flexuosum, Rhynchospora plumosa, *Aletris farinosa, Bigelowia nudata, Eupatorium leucolepis, *Juncus biflorus, and Orbexilum pedunculatum var. psoralioides; and (3) a few occurrences extend into or occur solely on drier slopes with sparser wiregrass mixed with bare sand patches, growing with Quercus laevis, Cirsium repandum, Aster linariifolius, Carphephorus bellidifolius, Gaylussacia dumosa, Pityopsis aspera var. adenolepis, and Rhynchospora grayi. Starred (*) species are characteristic of all sites except the driest. This latter plant community is known as Xeric Sandhill Scrub by Schafale and Weakley (1990). The vast majority of plants in North Carolina's Sandhills occur in sites much drier than anticipated from the conventional concepts derived from floras, literature reports, etc. (TNC 1991-93). Since so few field botanists have encountered the species during the past 50 years, there is little wonder that, at least in North and South Carolina, misconceptions have arisen over chaffseed's preferred habitat. Of all the pocosin ecotone species on Fort Bragg, Schwalbea americana is among the least moisture-dependent; soil descriptors such as "peaty" and "seasonally wet" are quite misleading. In North Carolina, the plants have been found growing on a variety of soils series, including Blaney (Arenic Hapludults), Candor (Arenic Paleudults), Gilead (Aquic Hapludults), Fuquay (Arenic Plinthic Paleudults), Lakeland (Typic Quartzipsamments), and Vaucluse (Typic Hapludults) (Hudson 1984, TNC 1991-93, NCNHP 1993). It is also often found growing in close proximity to a number of other rare Sandhills species such as Onosmodium virginianum, Phaseolus sinuatus, Pteroglossaspis ecristata, Solidago verna, Sporobolus sp.1, Tofieldia glabra (to a lesser degree), and Tridens carolinianus (TNC 1991-93, NCNHP 1993). In Virginia, a historic occurrence of Schwalbea americana along the fall belt was in moist to dry woods and clearings. Fernald (1939) reports Buchnera americana (=B. floridana) as an abundant associate of Schwalbea. Associated genera reported to occur with Schwalbea in the Southeast include grass species of Andropogon, Aristida, Panicum, and Paspalum; sedge species of Carex, Dichromena, Fimbristylis, Rhynchospora, Scleria, and other monocot species of Aletris, Calopogon, Eriocaulon, Juncus, Lachnocaulon, Xyris; as well as dicot species of Asclepias, Erigeron, Eryngium, Helenium, Heterotheca, Orbexilum, Phlox, and Polygala. In wetter sites ("grass-sedge complexes interrupted by stands of shrubs"), species of Cliftonia, Gaylussacia, Ilex (glabra, coriacea), Lyonia, Leucothoe, Myrica, and Vaccinium occur as associates (Kral 1983).

Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: The family is of economic importance because of cardiac glycosides derived from the foxglove and many fine ornamentals.
Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Light, and perhaps competition for other resources as well, appears to be most critical to the persistence of the species. Periodic annual fire, fluctuating water tables (sufficiently high for part of the year to exclude many woody plant species) or, annual mowing to maintain an open or semi-open habitat, all appear to reduce competition for light, and thus favor Schwalbea. The species occurs in transient, ecotonal areas where light is sufficient, where competition is less than in surrounding habitats, and where woody plant roots are available to parasitize. However, mowing more frequently than annually (or late in the season?) could adversely affect seed production and dispersal (Rawinski and Cassin 1986). Observations on Fort Bragg, North Carolina suggest that fire may be especially important to this species (TNC 1991-93, NCNHP 1993). At many sites, burns (early in the growing season?) every two to eight years may be necessary to maintain species viability and habitat integrity.

Where the species occurs adjacent to human activities, such as ballfields or roadsides, cooperative agreements with governing authorities are necessary for protection of this species. Where the species occurs in annual burn areas fire must not be prevented. Where the species is dependent on fluctuating moisture conditions, protection of the surrounding watershed may be necessary to maintain adequate habitat conditions.




Restoration Potential: One of the most unique occurrences of Schwalbea populations in is Hoke County, North Carolina, on the bombing range of Fort Bragg. Fires from explosions occur at least annually, maintaining "open habitat", apparently suitable to this species. Four of the five extant populations in North Carolina occur here (Weakley 1988). A newly discovered Florida population was found in a burned over scrub community (White 1988). Populations in South Carolina and Georgia occur in fire-prone pine communities. Annual burning may thus favor persistence, but there is no research demonstrating the species' ability to establish or expand populations with this treatment.

The single remaining population in New Jersey occurs along a roadside which is mowed annually. It remains a "vigorous" population (Rawinski and Cassin 1986).

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Light, and perhaps competition for other resources as well, appears to be most critical to the persistence of the species. Periodic annual fire, fluctuating water tables, sufficiently high for part of the year to exclude many woody plant species, or, annual mowing to maintain an open or semi-open habitat, all appear to reduce competition for light, and thus favor Schwalbea. The species occurs in transient, ecotonal areas where light is sufficient, where competition is less than in surrounding habitats, and where woody plant roots are available to parasitize.

Where the species occurs adjacent to human activities, such as ballfields or roadsides, cooperative agreements with governing authorities are necessary for protection of this speices. Where the species occurs in annual burn areas, fire must not be prevented. Where the species is dependent on fluctuating moisture conditions, protection of the surrounding watershed may be necessary to maintain these conditions.

Management Requirements: Management of Schwalbea americana populations is necessary to 1) prevent land development, agricultural practices, and wetlands modifications, where these would be harmful to populations, and 2) to prevent natural succession, and thus competition from woody vegetation. Seeding potential habitats might expand or establish S. americana populations.

Sites containing Schwalbea americana should be burned during the growing season on a three-to-five-year rotation using landscape-level, ecological burns when possible. Monitoring programs should continually evaluate the response of plants to current and new land management practices.

Monitoring Requirements: Biological monitoring is needed to document what appears to be a rapid decline in the number of individuals. Rayner (1986) reported that eight previously known South Carolina populations were extirpated, or unable to be located. New Jersey lost one of two extant populations in 1988 (Snyder 1988). Weakley (1988) reports that four North Carolina populations were last able to be located between 1949 and 1957, and are apparently now extirpated. Rayner (1986) points out that the species is difficult to locate when population size is small or the species is not flowering, making monitoring of populations difficult.

Monitoring is needed for single surviving populations in New Jersey, Florida, Mississippi, and Georgia to insure their protection; for populations in North Carolina to determine population trends in bomb site/annual burn areas; and in South Carolina, where the largest extant populations occur, to determine the optimum environmental regime, and to test management techniques.

Management Research Programs: Rawinski and Cassin (1986) reported that the effects of mowing will be assessed in 1986 for the Mississippi hayfield population. The results of this analysis were not found reported. Rayner (1988), SCNHP (1988) and Streich, New Jersey-Pennsylvania TNC began a study in 1988 to assess the effects of prescribed fires on population structure in the Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina. This study will continue in 1989. Requirements for seed germination and seedling establishment are being researched at Garden in the Woods, New England Wildflower Society (Brumback 1988).
Management Research Needs: Research is needed to assess the effects of controlled mowing and burning and to assess the effects of soil moisture variations on this species. Formal listing as a Federally Endangered species in November 1992 will increase this species' protection, as would private and public ownership agreements with Natural Heritage Programs. Rayner (1986) reports that 11 South Carolina occurrences are still in private ownership.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: An A-ranked occurrence of Schwalbea americana should have more than 1000 plants.
Good Viability: A B-ranked occurrence of Schwalbea americana should have between 300 and 1000 plants.
Fair Viability: A C-ranked occurrence of Schwalbea americana should have between 50 and 300 plants.
Poor Viability: A D-ranked occurrence of Schwalbea americana should have fewer than 50 plants.
Justification: The rank specifications for Schwalbea americana are based on current populations and expert opinion.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 28Dec2004
Author: Amoroso
Notes: (Fort Bragg) (SFO 1993)

U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Dec1993
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Johnson, Roger T. and M.J. Russo (1993), rev. D. Snyder (1997), L. Morse (1999), rev. Maybury 2004, rev. A. Treher (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 17Apr1995
Management Information Edition Author: INGE SMITH; MARY RUSSO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jun1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ROGER T. JOHNSON

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • BRUMBACK, W.E. 1989. NOTES ON PROPAGATION OF RARE NEW ENGLAND SPECIES. RHODORA 91(865):154-162.

  • Braun, E.L. 1936. Notes on Kentucky plants. I. Castanea 1: 41-45.

  • Braun, E.L. 1943. An annotated catalog of spermatophytes of Kentucky. Swift Co. Cincinnati, Ohio.

  • Broome, C. Rose, et al. 1979. Rare and Endangered Vascular Plant Species in Maryland. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Maryland. 64 p.

  • Brumback, W.E. 1988. Notes on propagation of rare New England species. Rhodora 91: 154-162.

  • Church, G.L. and R.L. Champlin. 1978. Rare and endangered vascular plant species in Rhode Island. New England Botanical Club, Cambridge, MA. 17 pp.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Fairbrothers, D. E. 1979. Endangered, threatened and rare vascular plants of the Pine Barrens and their biogeography. Ch. 22 in Forman, R. T. T. (ed.) Pine Barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York, 395-405 pp.

  • Fairbrothers, D. E. and M. Y. Hough. 1973. Rare or endangered vascular plants of New Jersey. Science Notes No. 14. N.J. State Museum, Trenton.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1939. Last survivors in the flora of tidewater Virginia. Rhodora. 41(490):465-504.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Glitzenstein, Jeff S. 2010. Surveying for American chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) at Sehot Plantation. Unpublished report.

  • Harker, D. 1981. Rare plants of eastern Kentucky and the Daniel Boone National Forest. Final report. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

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