Schoenoplectus hallii - (Gray) S.G. Sm.
Hall's Bulrush
Other Common Names: Hall's bulrush
Synonym(s): Schoenoplectiella hallii (A. Gray) Lye ;Scirpus hallii Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Schoenoplectus hallii (Gray) S.G. Sm. (TSN 507789)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.140335
Element Code: PMCYP0Q0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scirpus hallii
Taxonomic Comments: Treated as Scirpus supinus var. hallii by Gleason and Cronquist (1991). Recognized as the distinct species Scirpus hallii by authors such as Kartesz (1994) and Fernald (1950). Treated as Schoenoplectus hallii by Kartesz (1999) and Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Most recently, transferred to Schoenoplectiella hallii by Lye (2003) (see Shiels and Monfils 2012; Smith and McKenzie 2013; Weakley 2012). According to Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002), "many reports of Schoenoplectus hallii are based on misidentified specimens of S. saximontanus or S. erectus."
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Apr2015
Global Status Last Changed: 29Aug2007
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Known from widely disjunct localities in the eastern and midwestern United States, but rare throughout its range. Declining due to habitat destruction. Threatened by groundwater depletion, alterations to hydrology, wetland destruction due to development, and off-road vehicle use.  Other threats include exotic plant species, woody plant encroachment, herbicide use, excessive grazing, predation from mute swans and Canada geese, population isolation, loss of seed bank integrity, hybridization with Schoenoplectus saximontanus, and climate change resulting in increased drought.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Georgia (SH), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Iowa (SH), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S1), Massachusetts (SH), Michigan (S2), Missouri (S2), Nebraska (S2S3), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (S1), Wisconsin (S1)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: As of 2011, Schoenoplectus hallii is under review by USFWS.  It was included in a partial 90-Day finding on a petition to list species in the southeastern United States. "Because we have found that the petition presents substantial information indicating that listing may be warranted, we are initiating status reviews to determine whether listing these species under the Act is warranted." (Federal Register, September 27, 2011).
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Widely disjunct localities in the eastern and midwestern United States: Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wisconsin (McKenzie et al. 2007). Not collected since 1890 in Iowa (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Not collected since 1931 in Massachusetts (McKenzie et al. 2007). Not collected since 1966 in Georgia (and with some question as to the identity of that report) (McKenzie et al. 2007). Reports of S. hallii from Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Oregon, South Carolina, and South Dakota are based on misidentifications of S. saximontanus or S. erectus (McKenzie et al. 2007).  The species was discovered at one location in Ohio in 2011 (McKenzie et al. 2015).

Area of Occupancy: 26-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of current occurrences poorly known. There may be fewer than 50 occurrences (McKenzie, pers. comm., cited by Penskar and Higman 2002).  Information for each state is as follows.  Illinois: Seven occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015); 29 reports from Illinois (McKenzie et al. 2007).  Indiana: Two occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015); 6 reports from Indiana (McKenzie et al. 2007).  Kansas: Four occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015). The species has not been observed in Kansas between 1997 and 2007 despite intensive surveys (Freeman pers. comm., cited by McKenzie et al. 2007).  Kentucky: Four occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015). Known from only one site in Kentucky (McKenzie et al. 2007).  Michigan: Five occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015; Penskar and Higman 2002).  Missouri: Ten occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015; McKenzie et al. 2007). Nebraska: 45 occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015); 27 sites in Nebraska (McKenzie et al. 2007).  Oklahoma: Two occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015). Status in Oklahoma difficult to determine due to hybridization (McKenzie et al. 2007).  Texas: One occurrence (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015; O'Kennon and McLemore 2004).  Wisconsin: One occurrence (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of February 2015; McKenzie et al. 2007).  The Ohio occurrence, discovered in 2011, was not reconfirmed in a 2014 survey (McKenzie et al. 2015).

Population Size Comments: Thousands of individuals of this annual could be found in a given year, but may be visually absent for ten to twenty years.  Population size value left blank for this seed-banking annual because the large number of individuals in some years suggests a sense of security that is not warranted. 

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Many occurrences are subject to a variety of significant threats. The greatest threats range-wide involve habitat destruction and alteration. In particular, lowering of water tables, depletion of ground water for irrigation, and changes in hydrology threaten this species (McKenzie et al. 2007). Habitat destruction due to residential, commercial, agricultural, and recreational development is also a major threat (McKenzie et al. 2007).

Off-road vehicle use has seriously damaged the habitat occupied by S. hallii in some Michigan localities (Penskar and Higman 2002). Residential development accompanied by dredging and filling threatens habitat in Michigan (Penskar and Higman 2002) and Kansas (Freeman 1990). Local industries may alter the natural hydrology of existing habitats (Penskar and Higman 2002). Groundwater depletion in Kansas has lowered the water table in existing habitat and may be partially responsible for the intermittent nature of small ponds that probably remained permanently water-filled in the past (Freeman pers. comm.). The filling of sand ponds for development and agricultural purposes coupled with improvements for the drainage of wet, sandy agricultural fields are the primary threats in Illinois (Schwegman pers. comm.). These are potential threats elsewhere as well. A historical site in Massachusetts has been severely impacted by storm-water and septic effluent, and also by herbicides (Sorrie pers. comm.).

Other threats include the spread of exotic plant species such as purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), woody plant encroachment, herbicide use, excessive grazing, predation from mute swans and Canada geese, population isolation, loss of seed bank integrity, hybridization with Schoenoplectus saximontanus, and climate change resulting in increased drought (McKenzie et al. 2007).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Declining due to habitat destruction.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Before 1981, documented at approximately 30 sites from 15 counties in 9 states; from 1981-2006, documented at approximately 84 sites from 26 counties in 10 states; from 2001-2005, documented at 25 sites from 11 counties in six states (McKenzie et al. 2007). The increase between 1981 and 2006 largely reflects surveys in Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma during optimal years for the species (McKenzie et al. 2007). The decrease in the last five years may be due to reduction in habitat due to drought or a failure to monitor sites (McKenzie et al. 2007). Long-term trends are difficult to assess because population numbers vary widely from year to year, populations may fail to emerge for many years but re-emerge with favorable conditions, and because the species is frequently confused with Schoenoplectus saximontanus and S. erectus (McKenzie et al. 2007).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Requires bare, wet sandy substrates free of competition; does not persist once perennials get firmly established.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Widely disjunct localities in the eastern and midwestern United States: Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wisconsin (McKenzie et al. 2007). Not collected since 1890 in Iowa (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Not collected since 1931 in Massachusetts (McKenzie et al. 2007). Not collected since 1966 in Georgia (and with some question as to the identity of that report) (McKenzie et al. 2007). Reports of S. hallii from Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Oregon, South Carolina, and South Dakota are based on misidentifications of S. saximontanus or S. erectus (McKenzie et al. 2007).  The species was discovered at one location in Ohio in 2011 (McKenzie et al. 2015).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MI, MO, NE, OH, OK, SC, TX, WI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Baker (13007)*, Dougherty (13095)*
IA Louisa (19115)*, Muscatine (19139)*
IL Alexander (17003), Cass (17017), Kankakee (17091)*, Mason (17125), Morgan (17137)
IN Daviess (18027), Lake (18089), Porter (18127)
KS Harper (20077), Harvey (20079), Reno (20155)
KY Christian (21047), Logan (21141)
MA Essex (25009)*, Middlesex (25017)*
MI Allegan (26005), Muskegon (26121)
MO Franklin (29071)*, Howell (29091), Jefferson (29099)*, Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183)*, St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*
NE Antelope (31003), Boone (31011), Brown (31017), Garfield (31071), Holt (31089), Loup (31115), Rock (31149), Wheeler (31183)
OK Atoka (40005)*, Choctaw (40023)*, Comanche (40031), Woods (40151)*
TX Wise (48497)
WI Dane (55025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Charles (01090001)+*
03 Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+*, Lower Flint (03130008)+*, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+
05 Lower White (05120202)+, Red (05130206)+
07 Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Crawfish (07090002)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+*, Iroquois (07120002)+*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+, Lower Illinois (07130011)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+*, Meramec (07140102)+*, Cache (07140108)+
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+
10 Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Calamus (10210008)+, Loup (10210009)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+*
11 Spring (11010010)+, Little Arkansas (11030012)+, Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002)+*, Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004)+, Cache (11130202)+, West Cache (11130203)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+*, Clear Boggy (11140104)+*
12 Denton (12030104)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An annual tuft-forming sedge, 1-4 dm tall. 2-several spikelets, up to 1 cm long, are sessile or borne on short stalks.
Technical Description: Yatskievych (1999) described S. hallii as follows: "Plants annual or apparently so, the rhizomes absent or very short and hidden by the aerial stem bases. Stems tufted, 4-35 cm long. Leaves 2-3 near the stem bases. Inflorescences of 1-5 spikelets. Involucral bract length 3?10 cm. Spikelet length 5-13 mm. Achene length 1.3-1.7 mm."
Diagnostic Characteristics: S. hallii "is very similar to S. erectus, differing in having the spikelet scales yellow brown (vs. reddish brown) and achenes concave on the ventral surface (vs. bulging on the ventral surface)." (Weakley 2012).  "Both S. hallii and S. erectus can be distinguished from S. saximontanus by their two-branched styles (3-branched in S. saximontanus) and by their two-sided achenes (3-sided in S. saximontanus)." (McKenzie et al. 2007).  In addition, the achene ridges on S. saximontana are ?winged? while those on S. hallii are smooth (Smith and McKenzie 2013).
Ecology Comments: S. hallii is an annual that produces a long-lived seed bank. Its germination requirements are poorly known, but are probably very specific (Reznicek pers. comm.). Simple water level changes do not seem to trigger germination, as it does in other sedges. Germination likely involves several different triggers, including water level changes, but these are unknown.

S. hallii apparently does not appear at a site in two successive years. At Carr Lake, Muskegon County, Michigan site for instance, the species was first found in 1904. After 56 years, it was observed again in 1960, then not again until 1980, despite years of searching (Reznicek pers. comm.). At the Alleghan County, Michigan site, the species was found in the hundreds of thousands or perhaps millions in 1989. A search in the same location in 1990 revealed no evidence of any plants (Penskar pers. comm., Reznicek pers. comm.). Similar observations have been made elsewhere (Schwegman pers. comm.).

Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Shores and bottoms of shallow ephemeral ponds, sinkhole ponds, coastal plain marshes, and similar habitats where widely fluctuating water levels keep the sands free of other vegetation. These habitats occasionally dry out, but seeds may survive in the seed bank for many years, only germinating when conditions are suitable.

Terrestrial to emergent, freshwater shores, temporary ponds, wet places in cultivated fields, pastures, ditches, sinkholes, prairie (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002).

In Illinois, S. hallii typically grows in damp sandy areas kept free of competing perennial vegetation by inundation with water (Sheviak 1981, Mohlenbrock 1963) or agricultural tillage (Schwegman pers. comm.). Frequently the species occurs on the shores and bottoms of shallow ephemeral ponds after they dry (Sheviak 1981, Mohlenbrock 1963) and damp agricultural sandy fields that are farmed in dry years but left idle in the occasional wet years (Schwegman pers. comm.).

In Wisconsin, the single population is on a sandy shore of a shallow seepage lake with a fluctuating shoreline. Associates included Eleocharis engelmanii, Cyperus squarrosus, C. strigosus, Polygonum spp., Rotala ramosior and Linderna anagalloides.

In Missouri, S. hallii is known from the rocky margins of sinkhole ponds (Smith pers. comm.). Associates include Echinodorus tenellus var. parvulus, Isoetes spp., Hibiscus lasiocarpos, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, Bacopa acuminata, Eleocharis acicularis, Lindernia anagallidea, Rotala ramosior, Jussiaea repens, Ludwigia palustris, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Eyrngium prostratum, Lysimachia radicans and Drodia virginiana.

In Michigan, S. hallii occurs typically on the sandy, receding shores (Crispin and Penskar 1990) of coastal plain marshes (Penskar pers. comm.) and the upper stretches of sandy swales, sandy ponds and small lakeshores (Reznicek pers. comm.). Currently, S. hallii is known from six different locations in two Michigan counties. Associates at coastal marsh sites include Calamagrostis canadensis, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Scirpus smithii X S. purshianus, Rhynchospora capitellata, R. macrostachya, Psilocarya scirpoides, Panicum spretum, Solidago remota (=Euthamia tenuifolia), Rhexia virginica X (R. manana), Eleocharis trieostata, E. melanocarpa, E. robbinsii, E. obtusa, E. engelmanii and Panicum rigidulum x P. longifolium, Carex cryptolepis and Agrostis scabra (Crispin and Penskar 1990, Penskar pers. comm.). At sites possessing mostly bare sand, associates include Eleocharis olivacea, E. obtusa, E. atropurpurea, Hemicarpha micrantha, Scirpus smithii, Rotala ramorsior and some species of Juncus (Reznicek pers. comm.). At other sites that are drier and more vegetated, Panicum implicatum, P. meridionale, P. stipitatum, Lycopus spp., Scirpus americana, Rhynchospora macrostachya, Eleocharis obtusa and E. atropurpurea are associates. At the Alleghan County (MI) site, associates included E. tricostata, Stachys hyssopifolia and Echinodorus penellis (Reznicek pers. comm.).

All Kansas occurrences were reported from the margins of small, shallow ponds in sand prairie within the eastern Arkansas River Lowlands.

In Oklahoma, S. hallii has been documented from an edge of a lake and an old stock pond (Watson pers. comm.).

In Texas, S. hallii occurs along widely fluctuating margins of small sandy clay ponds (O'Kennon and McLemore 2004).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Protect the habitat's natural hydrology.  Control competing vegetation, especially exotic plants.  Prevent impacts from off-road vehicles and grazing.  Monitor population size and other parameters to track the status of extant populations.  Continue surveys to determine the true distribution and status of the species.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Since S. hallii is a wetland species, land protection efforts must ensure the integrity of water within the entire watershed in which the element occurs. Sufficient buffer must exist to protect the site from herbicide drift, alterations in the water table, and similar potentially destructive actions.
Management Requirements: Protection of extant sites from human disturbance (Penskar pers. comm.), coupled with the protection of the habitat's natural hydrology is the primary need for S. hallii (Crispin and Penskar 1990).
Monitoring Requirements: At present, factors affecting the germination requirements of S. hallii are unknown. The species may be a dominant at a site in one year, but be absent in the next (Penskar pers. comm., Reznicek pers. comm.). Long-term monitoring of population size and outside physical parameters (water level recordings, etc.) may provide a more detailed knowledge of the species' germination requirements (Reznicek pers. comm.). Schwegman (pers. comm.) suggested that a census sample plot be monitored annually with respect to weather parameters.

Smith (pers. comm.) stated that there is a need to periodically check extant sites to in order to track population maintenance and assure that the populations are persisting. Short and long-term monitoring would be beneficial in tracking this species (Penskar pers. comm.). Better counts of numbers within populations are also needed at extant sites (Smith pers. comm.).

Effects of fluctuating water levels and grazing pressure on S. hallii should be assessed (Smith pers. comm.).

Monitoring of S. hallii would be difficult due to its apparently strict germination requirements. Its reappearance at a site may not be made for many (20+) years after germinating by the thousands when requirements were met. Consequently, it would be very difficult to determine whether a population has been extirpated or not. If the habitat of a given population is still extant, there may be some reason to believe that the population may still be considered extant despite years (perhaps a century) of apparent absence.

Management Research Needs: A thorough status survey for S. hallii needs to be conducted in order to determine the true distribution and status of the species throughout its range (Freeman pers. comm., Leoschke pers. comm.).

Studies to determine specific habitat requirements, especially as it relates to germination needs should be undertaken (Penskar pers. comm.). Effects of grazing, burning, fluctuating water levels on populations of S. hallii need to be researched (Smith pers. comm.). This information is necessary in order to manage populations effectively.

Schwegman (pers. comm.) suggested that the population genetics of this widely scattered species should be studied to determine the significance and distinctiveness of each known S. hallii population.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Apr2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ormes, M.; rev. by W.R. Ostlie and S. Gottlieb, rev. Freeman/Maybury (1996), rev. A. Tomaino (2007), rev. A. Tomaino (2015)
Management Information Edition Date: 27Apr2015
Management Information Edition Author: WAYNE R. OSTLIE, rev. A. Tomaino (2015)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): WAYNE R. OSTLIE, rev. A. Tomaino (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baskin, C.C., J.M. Baskin, E.W. Chester, and M. Smith. 2003. Ethylene as a possible cue for seed germination of Schoenoplectus hallii (Cyperaceae), a rare summer annual of occasionally flooded sites. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 620?627.

  • Beal, E.O., and J.W. Thieret. 1986. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Kentucky. Scientific and Technical Series, Number 5. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY. 315 pp.

  • Beatty, B.L., W.F. Jennings, and R.C. Rawlinson. 2004c. Schoenoplectus hallii (Gray) S.G. Sm. (Hall?s bulrush): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/schoenoplectushallii.pdf]

  • Bowles, Marlin. 1990. Report on the Status of Endangered and Threatened Plants of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; Monitoring of Species New to the Lakeshore and Re-monitoring of Selected Species. To Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

  • Center for Plant Conservation. No date. National Collection Plant Profile: Scirpus hallii. Online. Available: http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ASP/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=6550 (accessed 27 August 2007).

  • Chafin, L.G. 2008. Rare plant species profile for Schoenoplectus hallii. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Divison. [http://www.georgiawildlife.com/sites/default/files/uploads/wildlife/nongame/pdf/accounts/plants/schoenoplectus_hallii.pdf]

  • Crispin, S., and M. Penskar. 1990. Scirpus Hallii Gray (Hall's clubrush). Unpublished abstract for Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Endangered Species Manual.

  • Crow, G.E. 1982. New England's rare, threatened, and endangered plants. Univ. New Hampshire, Durham, NH. 129 pp.

  • Esselman, E.J., T.A. Enders, M. Smith, and P.M. McKenzie. 2012. Examination of hybridization relationships between Schoenoplectus hallii and S. saximontanus (Cyperaceae) using ISSR markers. Phytoneuron 36: 1-9.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Jones, G.N. 1947. Supplementary list of Illinois vascular plants. Amer. Midl. Nat. 37:785-787.

  • Jones, G.N. 1952. Type localities of vascular plants first described from Illinois. Amer. Midl. Nat. 47:487-507.

  • Jones, S.B., Jr., and N.C. Coile. 1988. The distribution of the vascular flora of Georgia. Dept. Botany, Univ. Georgia, Athens. 230 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Leoschke, M. J. 1990. Botanist, Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Dept. of Natural Resources, Iowa. Personal communication: ESA questionnaire for Scirpus hallii. 4 pp.

  • McKenzie, P.M., D.W. Boone, M. Smith, and R.L. Gardner. 2015. New co-occurrence of Schoenoplectiella hallii and S. saximontana (Cyperaceae) in Ohio (U.S.A): Conservation implications for both species. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 9(2): 477-484

  • McKenzie, P.M., S.G. Smith, and M. Smith. 2007. Status of Schoenoplectus hallii (Hall's bulrush) (Cyperaceae) in the United States. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 457-481.

  • McKenzie, Paul M. Ph.D. 1998. Hall's Bulrush (Schoenoplectus hallii) Status Assessment. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 46 pp.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1963. The Cyperaceae of Illinois: 7. SCIRPUS. Amer. Midl. Nat. 70(1):1-46.

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  • Natural Land Institute. 1981. Endangered and threatened vertebrate animals and vascular plants of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation. 190 pp.

  • O'Kennon, R.J., and C. McLemore. 2004. Schoenoplectus hallii (Cyperaceae), a globally threatened species new for Texas. Sida 21(2): 1201-1204.

  • Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory. 2006.  Last update February 15.  Species account for Schoenoplectus hallii. Online. Available: http://www.oknaturalheritage.ou.edu/scirpus_hal.htm (accessed 2015).

  • Penskar, M.R., and P.J. Higman. 2002. Special plant abstract for Schoenoplectus hallii (Hall's bulrush). Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 4 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/abstracts/botany/Schoenoplectus_hallii.pdf]

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Schuyler, A.E. 1969. Three new species of SCIRPUS (Cyperaceae) in the southern United States. Notulae Naturae No. 423. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1981. Endangered and threatened plants. Pages 70-179 in: Bowles, M.L. (ed.). Endangered and threatened species of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield.

  • Shiels, D.R., and A.K. Monfils. 2012. New combinations in North American Schoenoplectiella (Cyperaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 22(1): 87-90.

  • Smith, M. and P.M. McKenzie. 2013. Schoenoplectiella x magrathii (Cyperaceae), a new interspecific hybrid between S. hallii and S. saximontana from Oklahoma. Phytoneuron 18: 1?10.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2012. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Working Draft of 28 September 2012. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2012).

  • Weakley, A.S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 11 January 2007. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. [http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (accessed 2007)]

  • Yatskievych, G. 1999. Steyermark's Flora of Missouri, Volume 1. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
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