Schoenocrambe argillacea - (Welsh & Atwood) Rollins
Clay Reed-mustard
Synonym(s): Hesperidanthus argillaceus (S.L. Welsh & N.D. Atwood) Al-Shehbaz
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Schoenocrambe argillacea (Welsh & Atwood) Rollins (TSN 195789)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129144
Element Code: PDBRA28030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Schoenocrambe
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Schoenocrambe argillacea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2009
Global Status Last Changed: 30Jun1988
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to a small area in the Uinta Basin, Uintah County, Utah. There are 6-7 mapped occurrences clustered in 3 "populations," with fewer than 10,000 individuals in total.The species is threatened by renewed intense oil and gas exploration and development in the Basin; in addition, its entire range is underlain by oil shale, the mining of which is a significant potential threat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (14Jan1992)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the Uinta Basin (Book Cliffs area) in Uintah County, northeast Utah. Known range is only about 24 km x 12 km, from the west side of the Green River to the east side of Willow Creek (USFWS 1994). Franklin (2005) describes the three population areas as follows: "along the east slopes of Big Pack Mountain and in Broome Canyon to the east; along the west slopes of Wild Horse Bench, from the vicinity of Kings Canyon and south nearly to The Wrinkles; and along the slopes of the canyons above Ray's Bottom, on the west side of the Green River."

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Six occurrences are believed extant and a seventh is considerd historical; these occurrences are found in three clusters ("populations").

Population Size Comments: The total population was estimated to be about 6,000 plants in 1992 (USFWS 1994).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: All known populations are on Federal lands leased for oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas exploration and development of wells and ancillary facilities are ongoing threats. As of 2005, the Uinta Basin was an area of intense oil and gas exploration, and some occurrences were potentially threatened by sedimentation and erosion from upslope oil and gas developments (Franklin 2005). In addition, the entire known range is underlain by oil-rich shale; oil-shale mining and processing are significant potential threats. Off-road vehicle use is also an active threat (USFWS 1994). Domestic livestock grazing may have had an impact historically, but is not believed to be a significant threat currently due to grazing management by the BLM (USFWS 1994).

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Little information is available on the historic abundance of S. argillacea because it was discovered relatively recently (1976) (USFWS 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to the Uinta Basin (Book Cliffs area) in Uintah County, northeast Utah. Known range is only about 24 km x 12 km, from the west side of the Green River to the east side of Willow Creek (USFWS 1994). Franklin (2005) describes the three population areas as follows: "along the east slopes of Big Pack Mountain and in Broome Canyon to the east; along the west slopes of Wild Horse Bench, from the vicinity of Kings Canyon and south nearly to The Wrinkles; and along the slopes of the canyons above Ray's Bottom, on the west side of the Green River."

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Uintah (49047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A sparsely-leaved perennial herb with several stout, somewhat woody, unbranched stems, 1.5-3 dm tall. The narrow, fleshy leaves are covered with a white, waxy surface. Flowers are pale lavender to whitish with conspicuous purple veins. Blooms in late April and early May.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Similar to S. barnebyi, but smaller than that species in most respects. S. argillacea is also distinct in having linear to narrowly oblong sessile cauline leaves, racemes with 5-22 flowers, and siliques 18-25 mm long (Utah Native Plant Society 2008).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Barrens, Desert
Habitat Comments: Occurs within shadscale, Indian ricegrass, pygmy sagebrush, and other mixed desert shrub communities on precipitous, typically north-facing slopes. On these slopes, plants grow in both exposed and protected sites, with protected sites usually having the more robust plants. Substrates consist of at-the-surface bedrock, scree, and fine-textured soils, often clay soils rich in gypsum (shale barrens) overlain with sandstone talus. Occurs about the zone of contact between the Tertiary lower Uinta Formation and the Evacuation Creek Member of the upper Green River shale Formation. Commonly associated species include Eriogonum corymbosum, Ephedra torreyana, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata, Elymus salinus, Tetradymia nuttallii,and Amelanchier utahensis; other associates include Agropyron smithii, Arabis pendulina, Arabis pulchra, Artemisia nova, Astragalus chamaeleuce, Astragalus convallarius, Brickellia oblongifolia, Castilleja chromosa, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Cryptantha rollinsii, Cymopterus fendleri, Eriogonum ovalifolium, Euphorbia fendleri, Leptodactylon pungens, Penstemon carnosus, Petradoria pumila, Cymopterus terebinthinus, Stipa hymenoides, Tetradymia spinosa, and Thelesperma subnudum. 1440-1765 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A natural occurrence of one or more plants.
Separation Barriers: EOs are separated by either: 1 kilometer or more across unsuitable habitat or altered and unsuitable areas; or 2 kilometers or more across apparently suitable habitat not known to be occupied.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected occurrences will eventually be found to be more closely connected. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 09May2002
Author: Ben Franklin
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: SIZE: 500 or more individuals (based on available EOR data). CONDITION: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species. With minor exceptions, this species appears to grow exclusively on precipitous slopes of the Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation.
Good Viability: SIZE: 200 to 499 individuals (based on available EOR data). LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover.
Fair Viability: SIZE: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans. CONDITION: 20 to 199 individuals (based on available EOR data). LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance).
Poor Viability: SIZE: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact. CONDITION: Less than 20 individuals (based on available EOR data). LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance.
Justification: SIZE: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. CONDITION: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Mar1988
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E., rev. C. Russell, rev. B. Franklin (1996), rev. K. Gravuer (2009)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • 100th Congress. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973, appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1988-1992. Public Law 100-478-October 7, 1988 102 STAT.2307-102 STAT.2323.

  • England, J.L. 1994. Utah reed-mustards: clay reed-mustard (Schoenocrambe argillacea), Barneby reed-mustard (Schoenocrambe barnebyi), shrubby reed-mustard (Schoenocrambe suffrutescens) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado. 22 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Franklin, M.A. 1992. Report for 1991 Challenge Cost Share Project, Bureau of Land Management. Target species: Schoenocrambe argillacea (Welsh & Atwood) Rollins. Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City. 10 pp + appendices.

  • Franklin, M.A. 1993. Survey report for 1992 joint project, Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, and Mariah Associates, Inc. Primary target species: clay reed-mustard [Schoenocrambe argillacea (Welsh & Atwood) Rollins]. Secondary target species: Graham penstemon [Penstemon grahamii Keck], shrubby reed-mustard [Schoenocrambe suffrutensenx (Rollins) Welsh & Chatterley], Uinta Basin hookless cactus [Sclerocactus glaucus K. Schum.], Uinta Basin short spined cactus [Sclerocactus brevispinus sp. nov., in. ed.]. Unpublished report on file Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City. 10 pp + appendices.

  • Franklin, M.A. 2005. Plant information compiled by the Utah Natural Heritage Program: A progress report. Publication Number 05-40. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah. 341 pp. [http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/ucdc/ViewReports/plantrpt.htm]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Rollins, R.C. 1982. Thelypodiopsis and Schoenocrambe (Cruciferae). Contr. Gray Herb. 212: 71-102. (!!!Very poor copy)

  • Rollins, R.C. 1993a. The Cruciferae of continental North America: Systematics of the mustard family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 976 pp.

  • Shultz, L. M., and K. M. Mutz. 1979. Threatened and endangered plants of the Willow Creek drainage. Vols. I and II. Submitted to: Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, contract #YA-512-CT9-105. Meiji Resource Consultants. 74 pp. + maps and data sheets.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1991. Schoenocrambe argillacea supplemental status seport. 2 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants; Final Rule to determine the plant Schoenocrambe argillacea (Clay Reed-Mustard) to be a Threatened Species, and the plant Schoenocrambe barnebyi (Barneby Reed-Mustard) to be and Endangered Species. Final Rule. January 14, 1992. Federal Register. 57(9): 1398-1403.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Final rule to determine the plant Schoenocrambe argillaceae (clay reed-mustard) to be a threatened species and the plant Schoenocrambe barnebyi (Barneby reed-mustard) to be an endangered species. Federal Register 57(9): 1398-1403.

  • Utah Native Plant Society. 2003-2008. Utah Rare Plant Guide. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Rare Plant Guide Home Page. Online. Available: http://www.utahrareplants.org (accessed 2009).

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of Utah: a reevaluation. Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 1-18.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Status report: Thelypodiopsis argillacea. Unpublished report prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 5 pp. + attachemnets.

  • Welsh, S. L., and N. D. Atwood. An undescribed species of Thelypodiopsis (Brassicaceae) from the Uinta Basin, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 37(1): 95-96.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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