Schinia carolinensis - (Barnes and McDunnough, 1911)
Carolina Schinia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.120969
Element Code: IILEYMPC00
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Other Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Noctuidae Schinia
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B83HOD01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Schinia carolinensis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Oct2005
Global Status Last Changed: 07Feb2003
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Information is limited but sufficient to conclude the species is not immediately imperiled range-wide but that it has serious threats, is restricted to rare habitats and not present in many of them. Assuming habitat observations are close to accurate this species is globally rare and declining along with other fauna from similar pine savanna habitats.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Eastern North Carolina to Florida peninsula and probably along the Gulf coast.

Area of Occupancy: 1-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Best guess, not less than this and unlikely more.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Probably fewer than 20 extant in North Carolina, and far fewerr known. A few in Florida but basically no other information. As presently understood there are probably under 100 and certainly under 300 known potential habitats, many of which lack the species.

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Continued loss of habitat to agriculture (including pine farming) and commercial and residential development. Habitat can also be lost to fire suppression but unlike many savanna species this one is probably only vulnerable to fire for a few weeks late in the growing season. So excessive fire probably is not often a threat. Still a complete burn at precisely the wrong time would eradicate that year's cohort. A further concern is that since the foodplant is unknown its response to fire is also unknown and most Schinia can reproduce only when the foodplants flower and set seed. Without knowing the foodplant precise evaluation of threat is not possible.

As noted by Steve Hall (2003-02-07) according to a search of NatureServe hat the lowest GRANK for any pine savanna community was G3 and "Given that not even all good quality savannas on public lands are managed appropriately for insects (e.g., Green Swamp), the amount of available habitat is even less than suggested by the community GRANK. Outside of protected lands, this habitat is under severe threat".

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Very little high quality savanna habitat still exists and that which does is fragmented. All potential habitat types are ranked G3 or scarcer (S. Hall).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Nearly all Schinia have narrow range of foodplants, typically a genus or less. A few have additional habitat needs.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Eastern North Carolina to Florida peninsula and probably along the Gulf coast.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Pender (37141)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 New River (03020302)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Savanna
Habitat Comments: Schinia carolinensis appears to be highly associated with good quality savannas and sandhills seepage bogs and is probably rare and declining throughout its range. This from Seve Hall for North Carolina, by e-mail to D. Schweitzer 2002-03-06. Nearly all Schinia are associated with open xeric to mesic habitats, the precise habitat being determined by the foodplant.
Phenology Comments: Based on collection data and general life history of the genus, adults occur in late summer (generally September-October). The egg stage should be a few days and larval stage less than a month. The rest of the year is spent as a pupae in the soil and it is very likely some pupae diapause for 23-35 months before developing.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Schinia and other flower-feeding Noctuidae

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A patch or proximate patches of the foodplant where the species occurs or has occurred where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a collection or photograph of an adult or verifiable larvae in association with the foodplant. If the foodplant is not known for the species an occurrence may be based on an adult associated with plausible habitat, that is with some sort of flowery situation such as a grassland, roadside, outcrop etc. Verification standards vary with taxa, but for many SCHNIA and some others photographs of adults are acceptable although specimens are always preferable. In most cases high quality occurrences will be metapopulations with several large patches of the foodplant with some scattered individuals between the main patches, usually within in a large prairie, savanna, woodland etc.
Mapping Guidance: When the foodplant occurs in multiple patches within a large remnant prairie, savanna, woodland, right of way etc. consider all occupied patches as a single metapopulation occurrence subject to the 10 kilometer distance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Most of these species are strong fliers and good colonizers. For example SCHINIA NUBILA colonized and became established in much of southern New Jersey and parts of Maryland, New York and Pennsylvania during the early and mid 1990s. Many species are very adept at colonizing successional habitats or coping with plants that do not flower every year. They also often reach high densities and can colonize small patches of plants if there are other source patches in the area. Thus a population should occupy essentially all available habitat where the species is present at all and populations will usually occur widely in good habitats although areas of concentration will shift if the plants bloom irregularly. While strays do occur adults concentrate very near their larval foodplant so relatively short separation distances across unsuitable habitat can be used to define occurrences even though some gene flow may occur. While some seemingly suitable habitat may be unoccupied for some of the rarer species, in general collections less than 10 kilometers apart over suitable habitat with the foodplant are very unlikely to represent separate occurrences.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In general habitats are only a few hectares to hundreds of hectares and so IE is simply all available habitat up to 400 hectares. However some arbitrary cap is needed where habitat is extensive or foodplant patches are widely distributed within a large community.
Date: 30Oct2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Feb2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.; Hall, Stephen

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Hardwick, D. F. 1996. A monograph of the New World Heliothentinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa Canada. 281 pp., 24 color plates.

  • Hodges, R.W. et al., eds. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E.W. Classey Limited and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, London. 284 pp.

  • Lafontaine, J.D. and B. C. Schmidt. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40:1-239.

  • Schweitzer, D. F., M. C. Minno, and D. L. Wagner. 2011. Rare, declining, and poorly known butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of forests and woodlands in the eastern United States. USFS Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Technology Transfer Bulletin FHTET-2011-01. 517 pp.

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