Lethe eurydice - (Linnaeus, 1763)
Eyed Brown
Synonym(s): Satyrodes eurydice (Johansson, 1763)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lethe eurydice (Linnaeus, 1763) (TSN 778108)
French Common Names: satyre ocellé
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.118895
Element Code: IILEPN0010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Lethe
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Satyrodes eurydice
Taxonomic Comments: The use of Lethe over Satyrodes follows Pelham (2008), and was based on Chermock (1947), Lesse (1957) and Scott (1986).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jan2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is widespread. The decline southeastward, while regionally severe, is far from rangewide. Subspecies fumosa is of higher priority, however.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (22Jan2001)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (14Jun2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1), Connecticut (S2S3), Delaware (SH), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S2S3), Iowa (S4), Maine (S4), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S2S3), Nebraska (S3), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S2S3), Rhode Island (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Vermont (S4), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (SH), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S5), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Southern Northwest Territories, south through Dakotas to Colorado, and east to Nova Scotia and formerly Delaware. Local.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Small, local colonies.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Often abundant where present.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Decling severely in southeastern part of range such as New Jersey, Pennsylvania and southern New England and has obviously lost by far most of its original habitat in the Midwest, but it is much more stable in Canada and parts of northern united States.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Inventory work is needed in region of decline.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Southern Northwest Territories, south through Dakotas to Colorado, and east to Nova Scotia and formerly Delaware. Local.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, CT, DE, IA, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, VT, WI, WY
Canada AB, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Larimer (08069)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), Litchfield (09005)
DE Kent (10001)*, New Castle (10003)*
IN La Porte (18091), Lake (18089), Porter (18127), Starke (18149), White (18181)
NE Buffalo (31019), Dundy (31057), Valley (31175)
NJ Middlesex (34023)*, Monmouth (34025)*, Sussex (34037)
PA Carbon (42025), Forest (42053), Luzerne (42079), Lycoming (42081), McKean (42083), Monroe (42089), Northampton (42095), Schuylkill (42107), Sullivan (42113), Tioga (42117), Warren (42123)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Farmington (01080207)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Pine (02050205)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+
07 Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+
10 Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, South Loup (10210004)+, Lower North Loup (10210007)+, Arikaree (10250001)+, North Fork Republican (10250002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Nymphalidae.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Consult several references. Where the record is important and S. APPALACHIA is also likely identification should be based on at least two actual specimens. Photographs in Glassberg (1993) are probably misidentified S. APPALACHIA (Dale Schweitzer, David Wright, David Iftner). Habitat selection and behavior in the field offer good clues but are not alone sufficient as S. APPALACHIA will enter open habitats.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Habitat is open sedge meadows or other open wetlands including the more open parts of shrubby wetlands. Statements (e.g. Gochfeld and Berger, 1997) that it is found in dense shrubs or woods contradict almost all other observers are known to be based on misidentification in the field.
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Larvae feed on sedges and less often grasses.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Adults occur in June or July in most of range, occasionally a partial late summer flight. Larvae overwinter in one of the mid instars.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Bog, Fen, and Marsh Lepidoptera

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or recently has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence., Minimally a location where there is a valid, verified record in association with sufficient suitable habitat with foodplant to maintain a population. Verification standards vary with taxa and location but generally must include a specimen for the moth or at least a photograph for the butterflies and skippers. Occurrences for these species can be quite small, only a few hectares for most and less than a hectare for many. Heath feeders that also occur in extensive upland heathlands or pine barrens as well as in bogs are not included in this group.
Mapping Guidance: Usually vegetation or hydrological features can be used as occurrence boundaries. See the habitat and food comments fields for species-specify information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping individual species.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: When a species is occurring patchily within a large wetland complex apply the suitable habitat distance, except across forest or open water or if the larval foodplant is really absent over at least half the suitable habitat distance across more open terrain.
Separation Justification: Distances are arbitrary but reflect two generalizations. Many open wetland Lepidoptera are very localized and some bog and fen species especially are virtually never seen out of habitat and probably are not very dispersive and secondly, these habitats are often small and thus not easy to colonize. Thus more than for most habitat Lepidoptera, occurrences of bog, fen and marsh species may be small and isolated even when rather close together. It is also not unusual for bog species to be absent from one bog and present in others nearby, again suggesting isolation. Even for taxa that do show up at lights out of habitat such as MACROCHILO SP.1 and M. LOUISIANA such events are rare.
On the other hand like most localized Lepidoptera these species can be expected to fully occupy proximate habitat or patches of same within the same wetland at least over periods of several years and usually in most given years. It is unlikely that two collections only five kilometers apart in a matrix of largely suitable habitats would really be two occurrences. But given the limited dispersal of some of the species it seems prudent to treat more widely separated collections as separate occurrences pending further data.
Suitable habitat in this context definitely includes marginal habitats separating optimal patches.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Use 0.5 kilometer only over contiguous basically suitable habitat. This small distance is suggested here in consideration that some of these species may have very exacting habitat requirements and so may be less widespread than expected. In most cases habitats are a few dozen to a couple hundred hectares and inferred extent is simply the entire habitat.
Date: 14Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Notes: These specs should not be applied to highly dispersive species or any that also occur in more mesic or dry heathlands, such as Sphingidae or Epiglaea apiata for obvious exclusions.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Oct2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.; Opler, P.A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Oct2000
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Chermock, R. L. 1947. Notes on North American Enodias (Lepidoptera). Entomological News 58(2):29-35.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies through binoculars: A field guide to butterflies in the Boston-New York-Washington region. Oxford University Press: New York. 160 pp.

  • Gobeil, R.E., and R.M.F. Gobeil. 2014. A survey of butterflies found at a reclaimed municipal landfill superfund site in Saco, Maine (York County). News of the Lepidopterists' Society 56(4):160-165.

  • Gochfeld, M. and J. Burger. 1997. Butterflies of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press: Rutgers, New Jersey. 327 pp.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Iftner, D. C., J. A. Shuey, and J. V. Calhoun. 1992. Butterflies and Skippers of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin. New Series, Vol. 9, no. 1, xii + 212 pp., 40 color plates.

  • Iftner, David. 1997-02-15. Letter to Rick Dutko regarding lepidoptera ranking.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. LaFontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada. 280 pp. + color plates.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R., J. Landry, B. C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.J. Van Neiukerken, J.R. DeWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari, and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated Checklist of the Moth and Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. Bulgaria. 580 pp.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. 583 pp.

  • Wander, Wade. 1997-02-17. Letter to Rick Dutko, NJNHP regarding lepidoptera ranking.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • de Lesse , J. H. 1957. Révision du genre Lethe (S. L.)(Lep. Nymphalidae Satyrinae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France 125:75-95.

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