Satyrium favonius - (J.E. Smith, 1797)
Oak Hairstreak
Other English Common Names: Southern Hairstreak
Synonym(s): Euristrymon favonius ;Fixsenia favonius (J.E. Smith, 1797)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Satyrium favonius (J. E. Smith, 1797) (TSN 777826)
French Common Names: porte-queue méridional
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.108469
Element Code: IILEPE9010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Satyrium
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Fixsenia favonius
Taxonomic Comments: Opler and Warren (2002) state, "Species previously placed in Fixsenia Tutt, 1907 and Harkenclenus dos Passos, 1970, are now placed in Satyrium by Robbins (in press)."

Previously considered to be a species separate from more northern and western butterflies, which were Fixsenia ontario, the Northern Hairstreak.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Aug2009
Global Status Last Changed: 16Aug2009
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: With S. f. ontario included as a subspecies, this hairstreak is widespread in the eastern and central USA except along the northern border and in the mountains. It is probably much less rare than supposed because it apparently stays mostly high in the oaks, but until this is better documented there will be some doubt as to its real status. It does not appear to be declining and apparently expanded its range in the northeast in the 1970s and 1980s. Habitats are usually rather ordinary oak forest or woodlands, although also there are occurrences on some inland barrens.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (17Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (S3), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SNR), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (S4?), Georgia (SU), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S1S2), Kansas (S2S3), Kentucky (S2), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S3S4), Michigan (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S2S4), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4?), Pennsylvania (SU), Rhode Island (SNR), Tennessee (S4), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S2)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Eastern Massachusetts down the Atlantic Coast and Piedmont to southern Florida, west to central Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma and eastern Texas, and disjunctly northeastern New Mexico and adjacent southeastern Colorado; but absent from most of Pennsylvania, most of Ohio and the Appalachians. While the Type specimen for the widespread subspecies S. f. ontario might have really come from Ontario, there have been no know specimens or photographs from Canada in over 120 years. See Layberry et al. (1998). Subspecies S. f. favonius is mostly Floridian but occurs up the immediate coast of Georgia and blends into the continental form.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Eastern Massachusetts down the Atlantic Coast and Piedmont to southern Florida, west to central Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma and eastern Texas, and disjunctly northeastern New Mexico and adjacent southeastern Colorado; but absent from most of Pennsylvania, most of Ohio and the Appalachians. While the Type specimen for the widespread subspecies S. f. ontario might have really come from Ontario, there have been no know specimens or photographs from Canada in over 120 years. See Layberry et al. (1998). Subspecies S. f. favonius is mostly Floridian but occurs up the immediate coast of Georgia and blends into the continental form.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, TN, TX, VA, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Las Animas (08071)*
DE Sussex (10005)
IN Wabash (18169)*
KY Christian (21047), Fayette (21067)*, Hardin (21093), Harrison (21097), Hart (21099), Hopkins (21107), Jefferson (21111)*, Lewis (21135), McCracken (21145)*, Meade (21163), Oldham (21185)*, Pulaski (21199), Rowan (21205), Trigg (21221)
MA Barnstable (25001), Berkshire (25003), Dukes (25007), Franklin (25011), Hampshire (25015), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Worcester (25027)
MD Allegany (24001), Baltimore County (24005)
MI Lenawee (26091)*, Wayne (26163)
NC Brunswick (37019), Caswell (37033), Cleveland (37045), Dare (37055)*, Hoke (37093), Iredell (37097), Mecklenburg (37119), Montgomery (37123), Moore (37125), New Hanover (37129), Orange (37135), Richmond (37153)
NY Orange (36071), Rockland (36087), Ulster (36111), Westchester (36119)
RI Washington (44009)
WV Grant (54023), Pendleton (54071)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070002)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
03 Lower Dan (03010104)+, Albemarle (03010205)+*, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+*, Upper Neuse (03020201)+, New River (03020302)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Upper Pee Dee (03040104)+, Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+, Upper Catawba (03050101)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+
04 Detroit (04090004)+, Tiffin (04100006)+*
05 Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Licking (05100101)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+*, Upper Green (05110001)+, Rough (05110004)+, Eel (05120104)+*, Rockcastle (05130102)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+*, Salt (05140102)+*, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Tradewater (05140205)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
06 Lower Tennessee (06040006)+*
11 Purgatoire (11020010)+*, Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Lycaenidae.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: For subspecies favonius; wooded coastal areas, barrier islands, oak hammocks. For the most widespread subspecies ontario: a variety of dry oak dominated forest and woodland situations including sometimes barrens. Probably far more general than realized as adults apparently are mostly in the canopy. For subspecies autolycus: a variety of woods, oak brush and edges (Opler, 1999).
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Food Comments: Larva on new growth of oaks in spring. One brood in all parts of range. Caterpillar Hosts: Various oaks (Quercus). Adult Food: Flower nectar.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Forest and Woodland Hairstreaks

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally, a suitable habitat (generally woodland or forest) with the larval foodplant where the species as been verified based on specimens or positively identified photographs for most species. For a number of taxa, not all individuals can be positively identifed from photographs. Due to the frequency of misidentifications in the literature and lack of completely reliable wing characters, genitalia examination would generally be the minimum verification for S. CARYAEVORUM. EOs may include nearby nectar sites when these are adjacent to but different than breedin areas.
Mapping Guidance: EO should be mapped to include all contiguous or nearly contiguous habitat subject to IE.
If the species is associated with a discrete natural community occurrence do not create more than one EO within that community unless the foodplant is absent over gaps of at least half the suitable habitat distance and consider whether the community boundaries should also be used for the EO boundaries. Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences.

Separation Barriers: None known.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: On islands it may be reasonable to consider all colonies as one metapopulation even if these distances are exceeded somewhat.
Separation Justification: These butterflies are rarelyseen more than at most a few hundred meters out of habitat and generally leave it only in search of nectar. On the other hand habitats are usually large (very often >>1000 hectares) for many of the species and in such cases most species seem to occur widely throughout the habitat. Some species are very dispersive, probably especially the subtropical ones that barely enter the USA. There seems to be little doubt that F. FAVONIUS ONTARIO expanded its range several hundred kilometers to the Northeast in the last half of the 20th century. In general though these butterflies are often localized around their foodplants. While there are no real data it does seem likely that 2 kilometers is more than enough to effectively separate populations. Note however that most of these species feed on a dominant or co-dominant tree or shrub and so large blocks of contiguous habitat are likely to be fully occupied. Occurrences several kilometers in one or more dimension are common for some of these species, and few occurrences (perhaps not really any for most species) for any are much less than 50 hectares. Territorial males may be much more localized than females are. Both sexes may also be highly concentrated at times on scarce nectar flowers. It would probably be quite unusual for two collections less than 5 or even 10 km apart in suitable habitat to prove to be separate occurrences, but note suitable habitat must include the local foodplant.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: This applies only in extensive essentially contiguous habitats such as often in extensive eastern forest areas. If the habitat patch is smaller and there are no others within a kilometer the inferred extent is that patch. Note that many taxa feed on the dominant or co-dominant vegetation of the canopy or shrub layer and larvae and adults occur widely in such habitats. Many occupied habitats are several thousand hectares and 5-10 km or more in at least one dimension. Still since some of the species (e.g. KINGI, LIPAROPS STRGOSUM, probably CARYAEVORUM) appear to be more local than their foodplants these butterflies should not be inferred present over long distances. A circle of radius 1 km defines an area of about 400 hectares which is well within the range of occurrences where the habitats are large.
Date: 23Jul2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Notes: Do not apply these SPECS to S. EDWARDSII or any other species which are obligately dependent on ants to tend their larvae unless the requisite ants are rather ubiquitous species. Such hairstreaks may be extremely localized within large seemingly suitable habitats, being found only near the ant colonies. The Specs for S. EDWARDSII can be consulted for guidance.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Aug2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): SCHWEITZER, D.F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, T.J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh, PA. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • Holmes, A.M., Q.F. Hess, R.R. Tasker and A.J. Hanks. 1991. The Ontario Butterfly Atlas. Toronto Entomologists' Association, Toronto, Ontario. viii + 167 pp.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 280 pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Riotte, J.C.E. 1992. Annotated List of Ontario Lepidoptera. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 208 pp.

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