Sander vitreus - (Mitchill, 1818)
Walleye
Synonym(s): Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill, 1818)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818) (TSN 650173)
French Common Names: doré jaune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101703
Element Code: AFCQC05020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Sander
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stizostedion vitreum
Taxonomic Comments: A range-wide analysis of genetic variation in Sander vitreus indicated that the "blue pike" (S. v. glaucus) is not a valid taxon (Haponski and Stepien 2014); previously, has been variously regarded as a full species (S. glaucus) or as a subspecies or color phase of vitreus (Robins et al. 1991). Hybridizes with S. canadensis (Lee et al. 1980).

Electrophoretic analyses (Murphy 1990) and mitochondrial DNA comparisons (Billington et al. 1992, Billington and Strange 1995) have confirmed the genetic uniqueness of the upper Tombigbee River population (Mississippi and Alabama); the relationships among this population and those of other Gulf Coast drainages (e.g., Apalachicola River of Florida and Georgia, and Pearl River, Mississippi) are unknown and need further study (Billington and Strange 1995; Federal Register, 13 March 1995). See record for Southern Walleye (Stizostedion sp. 1).

Genus includes three species in Europe and two species in North America (Nelson 1984).

MtDNA data indicate that S. vitreus and S. canadensis separated about 2.75 million years ago (Faber and Stepien 1998).

Genus changed from Stizostedion to Sander by Nelson et al. (2003).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S4S5), Manitoba (S5), Northwest Territories (S3), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories, and south to Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas; widely introduced elsewhere in U.S., including Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific drainages; uncommon or locally common (Page and Burr 1991). Subspecies/form glaucum (blue pike) of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, lower Niagara River, and Lake Huron (where formerly rare at most) has not been reported since 1970 and is presumed to be extinct. Native southern walleye historically occurred in all eight Mobile Basin drainages in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, and in a small area of Tennessee (USFWS, Federal Register 12 September 1995).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline of subspecies/form GLAUCUM (blue pike) was due to degradation of Lake Erie, introduced fishes, overfishing, and hybridization with subspecies VITREUM (Miller et al. 1989). Potential habitat throughout the Mobile River basin may have been affected or eliminated due to impoundment of approximately 1000 miles of river habitat and/or by extensive stream channelization and desnagging; erosion due to headcutting, a proposed channelization project, and proposed impoundments pose additional threats; potential threats to stream habitat quality include various point source effluents (e.g., coal surface mining and sand/gravel mining) as well as sediments, nutrients, and toxicants from nonpoint runoff; excessive harvest at spawning sites in Alabama may reduce reproduction; threats from dam construction, channelization, and water pollution recently may have been stabilized, but illegal gravel mining and headcutting remain problematic in some areas (USFWS, Federal Register, 13 March 1995, 12 September 1995).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Southern walleye likely has declined in distribution and population size, but data are not adequate for an accurate assessment; USFWS concluded that the southern walleye is still sufficiently abundant that timely management and conservation efforts can improve its status (USFWS, Federal Register, 12 September 1995).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories, and south to Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas; widely introduced elsewhere in U.S., including Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific drainages; uncommon or locally common (Page and Burr 1991). Subspecies/form glaucum (blue pike) of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, lower Niagara River, and Lake Huron (where formerly rare at most) has not been reported since 1970 and is presumed to be extinct. Native southern walleye historically occurred in all eight Mobile Basin drainages in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, and in a small area of Tennessee (USFWS, Federal Register 12 September 1995).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LAexotic, MAexotic, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MTexotic, NC, ND, NE, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OKexotic, ORexotic, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV, WYexotic
Canada AB, BCnative and exotic, MB, NT, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
PA Erie (42049)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006)*, Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001)
03 Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004)*, Upper Maumee (04100005)*, Tiffin (04100006), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Lake Erie (04120200)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)*, Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Black (04150101), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Indian (04150303), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), French (05010004)*, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102)*, Mahoning (05030103)*, Beaver (05030104), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003)*, Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005)*, Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Lower Green (05110005), Upper Wabash (05120101), Mississinewa (05120103), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Lower Wabash (05120113), Lower White (05120202), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Upper Duck (06040002), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Leech Lake (07010102), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Pine (07010105), Crow Wing (07010106), Redeye (07010107), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107)*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), The Sny (07110004), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Upper Sangamon (07130006), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Cache (08020302), Deer-Steele (08030209)*, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Mustinka (09020102), Otter Tail (09020103), Upper Red (09020104), Buffalo (09020106), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Maple (09020205), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Thief (09020304), Clearwater (09020305), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Snake (09020309), Lower Red (09020311), Two Rivers (09020312), Roseau (09020314), Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Vermilion (09030002), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004), Little Fork (09030005), Big Fork (09030006), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Grand (10130303), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Crow (10140105), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Lower Niobrara (10150007), James Headwaters (10160001), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Middle James (10160006), North Big Sioux Coteau (10160010), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Lower Platte (10200202), South Loup (10210004), Mud (10210005), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Middle Republican (10250016), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Caney (11070106), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Spring (11070207), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)*, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)*, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Petit Jean (11110204), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Little (11140109)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and (in north) early summer. Eggs hatch in 26 days at 4.4 C, 7 days at 14 C. Males sexually mature generally in 2-4 years, females in 3-8 years, depending on growth rate (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973). Females spawn a maximum of about 8 times in their lifetime; maximum age generally around 10 years (Bart and Page 1992).
Ecology Comments: Summer wanderings usually limited to 3-5 miles but occasionally moves much farther (Scott and Crossman 1973). In North Platte River drainage of Wyoming, preyed on fingerling trout and competed with trout for forage, especially crayfishes (see Sublette et al. 1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate as much as 160 km between spawning habitat and nonspawning habitat (Becker 1983). Lacustrine populations often move up rivers to spawn.
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Lakes; pools, backwaters, and runs of medium to large rivers; generally in moderately deep waters. Avoids bright light. Generally in quiet water when not spawning. Often in beds of aquatic vegetation, in holes among tree roots, or in or near similar cover by day. A pH of 8-9 is most suitable. Adults avoid temperatures above 24 C, if possible. Greatest population densities under moderately turbid conditions or in deep clear lakes with strong deepwater forage base (Sublette et al. 1990). See McMahon et al. (1984) for further details, including a habitat suitability index model. Spawns in turbulent rocky areas in rivers, boulder to coarse gravel shoals of lakes, along riprap on dam face of reservoirs, and flooded marshes (Becker 1983, Sublette et al. 1990). Eggs are broadcast and abandoned, adhesive but may drift great distances. Larvae initially are pelagic, soon become bottom dwellers. Adults tend to return to formerly used spawning (and feeding) areas.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Visual predator. Young up to 6 weeks old eat mainly copepods, Cladocera, and small fishes. Adults feed opportunistically on various fishes and larger invertebrates. In native range, yellow perch is preferred prey of adults and juveniles. Some populations feed almost exclusively on emerging larval and adult insects.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Mostly nocturnal, though also diurnal in turbid water. Active throughout winter (Becker 1983). Adults most active in spring and fall.
Length: 78 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Popular and widely stocked game fish. Has been pond cultured for over 100 years.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 30 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 30 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. May migrate as much as 160 km between spawning habitat and nonspawning habitat (Becker 1983).
Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality. Be careful not to separate a population's spawning and nonspawning habitats as different occurrences (i.e., do not use the 30-km separation distance without evaluating seasonal changes in habitat use) .

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Apr1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Billington, N., R. J. Barrette, and P. D. N. Hebert. 1992. Management implications of mitochondrial DNA variation in walleye stocks. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12:276-284.

  • Billington, N., and R. M. Strange. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirms the existence of a genetically divergent walleye population in northeastern Mississippi. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:770-776.

  • Craig, J. 1987. The biology of perch and related species. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 333 pp.

  • Eschmeyer, P. H. 1950. The life history of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill), in Michigan. Michigan Department of Conservation, Bulletin of the Institute for Fisheries Research 3:1-99.

  • Faber, J. E., and C. A. Stepien. 1998. Tandemly repeated sequences in the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogeography of the pike-perches Stizostedion. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10:310-322.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Haponski, A. E., and C. A. Stepien. 2014. A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct ?blue pike? S. v. ?glaucus.? BMC Evolutionary Biology. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/14/133. 

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • McMahon, T. E., J. W. Terrell, and P. C. Nelson. 1984. Habitat suitability information: walleye. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-82/10.56. 43 pp.

  • Miller, R. R., J. D. Williams, and J. E. Williams. 1989. Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14(6):22-38.

  • Murphy, B. R. 1990. Evidence for a genetically unique walleye population in the upper Tombigbee River system of northeastern Mississippi. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings (22):14-16.

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2003. The "names of fishes" list, including recommended changes in fish names: Chinook salmon for chinook salmon, and Sander to replace Stizostedion for the sauger and walleye. Fisheries 28(7):38-39.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinoza-Perez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea and J.D. Williams. 2003. The "Names of Fishes" list, including recommended changes in fish names: Chinook salmon for chinook salmon, and Sander to replace Stizostedion for the sauger and walleye. Fisheries Vol 28 No 7 pp 38-39.

  • Niemuth, W., W. Churchill, and T. Wirth. 1959a. The walleye, its life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Publication No. 227:1-14.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Regier, H.A., V.C. Applegate, R.A. Ryder, et al. 1969. The ecology and management of the walleye in western Lake Erie. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report 15: vii + 101 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Zilliox, R. G. 1962. The walleyes of Lake Champlain. Conservationist 16(5):10-11, 34.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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