Sander canadensis - (Griffith and Smith, 1834)
Sauger
Synonym(s): Stizostedion canadense (Griffith and Smith, 1834)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sander canadensis (Griffith and Smith, 1834) (TSN 650171)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102010
Element Code: AFCQC05010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Sander
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stizostedion canadense
Taxonomic Comments: Genus includes three species in Europe and two species in North America (Nelson 1984).

MtDNA data indicate that S. vitreus and S. canadensis separated about 2.75 million years ago (Faber and Stepien 1998).

Genus changed from Stizostedion to Sander by Nelson et al. (2003).

Specific name was changed from canadense to canadensis to agree with the masculine generic name Sander (Nelson et al. 2004).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Florida (SNR), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S2), Nebraska (S5), New York (S1), North Carolina (S2?), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S2), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNA), Vermont (S4S5), Virginia (S2S3), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S3S4)
Canada Alberta (S3), Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to the Hudson Bay, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, and Mississippi River basins, from southern Canada (Quebec to Alberta) south to Wyoming, Kansas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and northern Alabama; introduced in Atlantic, Gulf, and southern Mississippi River drainages; uncommon or locally common (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to the Hudson Bay, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, and Mississippi River basins, from southern Canada (Quebec to Alberta) south to Wyoming, Kansas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and northern Alabama; introduced in Atlantic, Gulf, and southern Mississippi River drainages; uncommon or locally common (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SCexotic, SD, TN, TXexotic, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MI Houghton (26061)*, Monroe (26115)*, Newaygo (26123)*, St. Clair (26147)*, Wayne (26163)*
MT Big Horn (30003), Blaine (30005), Carbon (30009), Carter (30011), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Custer (30017), Dawson (30021), Fallon (30025), Fergus (30027), Garfield (30033), Hill (30041), Liberty (30051), McCone (30055), Musselshell (30065), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Powder River (30075), Prairie (30079), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Rosebud (30087), Teton (30099), Treasure (30103), Valley (30105), Wibaux (30109), Yellowstone (30111)
NC Cherokee (37039)*, Haywood (37087), Madison (37115)
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167)*, Scott (51169)*, Wise (51195)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007)
03 Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*
04 Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103)+*, Sturgeon (04020104)+*, Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203)*, Lower Fox (04030204), Muskegon (04060102)+*, Lake Michigan (04060200), St. Clair (04090001)+*, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+*, Huron (04090005)+*, Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Blanchard (04100008)*, Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Lake Erie (04120200)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Beaver (05030104), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Walhonding (05040003)*, Muskingum (05040004), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002)*, Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Big Sandy (05070204), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Vermilion (05120109)*, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002)+, Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)*, Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), The Sny (07110004), Salt (07110007), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Cache (08020302), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Upper Saline (08040203), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301)*, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203)*, Coles Creek (08060204), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Whisky Chitto (08080204), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*
09 Elm-Marsh (09020107)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Belt (10030105)+, Marias (10030203)+, Teton (10030205)+, Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Arrow (10040102)+, Judith (10040103)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Big Dry (10040105)+, Middle Musselshell (10040202)+, Flatwillow (10040203)+, Lower Musselshell (10040205)+, Milk Headwaters (10050001), Upper Milk (10050002)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Big Sandy (10050005)+, Lodge (10050007)+, Battle (10050008)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Cottonwood (10050010)+, Whitewater (10050011)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Frenchman (10050013)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Rock (10050015)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Poplar (10060003)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Upper Yellowstone (10070002), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007)+, Pryor (10070008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Lower Tongue (10090102)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Lower Powder (10090209)+, Mizpah (10090210)+, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+, Big Porcupine (10100002)+, Rosebud (10100003)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, O'fallon (10100005)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Boxelder (10110202)+, Beaver (10110204)+, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Medicine (10140104), Ponca (10150001), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Little Sioux (10230003)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Grand (10280101), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns over 2-week period in spring, from as early as mid-March in Alabama to late June in North Dakota, at water temperatures of 4 C in North Dakota to 14 C in Tennessee (see Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Eggs hatch in about 3-4 weeks at 5-13 C. In the north, males sexually mature in 2-3 years, females in 4-6 years (Scott and Crossman 1973). In Virginia, both sexes mature at 2-3 years.
Ecology Comments: Usually move little in summer but movements of as far as 100 miles recorded in Mississippi River (Scott and Crossman 1973). Movements of up to 380 km known (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Some lake populations may migrate up rivers to spawn. May leave lake in fall, return after spawning in spring. (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Sand and gravel runs, sandy and muddy pools and backwaters, of small to large rivers; less often in lakes and impoundments (Page and Burr 1991). Typical of large, cool or warm, often turbid, slow-flowing rivers. Often in clear water in the south. Rarely descends to brackish water in the St. Lawrence River. In lakes, spawns along sandy and rocky shores and over rocky reefs at depths of 0.6-3.6 m. In rivers, spawns in deep rocky runs (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). May leave lake to spawn upstream in river.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Larvae eat microcrustaceans. Young eat zooplankton, immature and adult aquatic insects, and fish fry; adults eat small fishes and various invertebrates (Scott and Crossman 1973), or are almost exclusively piscivorous (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Sight feeder, adapted to low light.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Most active in evening and early morning in clear water, period of activity increased in more turbid water (Scott and Crossman 1973). Adapted to night activity (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991).
Length: 46 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Burkhead, N. M., and R. E. Jenkins. 1991. Fishes. Pages 321-409 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Faber, J. E., and C. A. Stepien. 1998. Tandemly repeated sequences in the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogeography of the pike-perches Stizostedion. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10:310-322.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2003. The "names of fishes" list, including recommended changes in fish names: Chinook salmon for chinook salmon, and Sander to replace Stizostedion for the sauger and walleye. Fisheries 28(7):38-39.

  • Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinoza-Perez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea and J.D. Williams. 2003. The "Names of Fishes" list, including recommended changes in fish names: Chinook salmon for chinook salmon, and Sander to replace Stizostedion for the sauger and walleye. Fisheries Vol 28 No 7 pp 38-39.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Priegel, G. R. 1969c. The Lake Winnebago sauger-age growth, reproduction, food habits, and early life history. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin No. 43. 63 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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