Salix candida - Fluegge ex Willd.
Hoary Willow
Other English Common Names: Sageleaf Willow
Other Common Names: sageleaf willow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Salix candida Flueggé ex Willd. (TSN 22514)
French Common Names: saule tomenteux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.140413
Element Code: PDSAL020K0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Willow Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Salicales Salicaceae Salix
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Salix candida
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Oct2015
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Rank is based on 95 known element occurrences across a broad species range.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (15Oct2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (S3), Colorado (S2), Connecticut (S3), Idaho (S2), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Maine (S1), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S3S4), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S2), New York (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S1), Vermont (S3), Washington (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S2), Newfoundland Island (S4), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S1), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S1), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ranges from Labrador to Alaska and south to the Great Lakes states, South Dakota, Colorado, and Idaho (Hitchcock and Croquist 1964).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Estimate is based on more than 80 element occurrences mapped in Porsild and Cody (B80POR01AKUS) and 15 mapped in Argus (B73ARG01AKUS). Four occurrences in Idaho (Steele, 1981).

Population Size Comments: Estimate is based on range of the species. Argus calls S. CANDIDA occasional in Alaska at the northwestern edge of its range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ranges from Labrador to Alaska and south to the Great Lakes states, South Dakota, Colorado, and Idaho (Hitchcock and Croquist 1964).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SD, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Jackson (08057), La Plata (08067)*, Lake (08065), Larimer (08069), Park (08093)
CT Fairfield (09001), Litchfield (09005)
IA Allamakee (19005), Benton (19011), Black Hawk (19013), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Butler (19023), Cerro Gordo (19033), Chickasaw (19037), Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055), Emmet (19063)*, Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067), Franklin (19069), Hancock (19081)*, Howard (19089), Johnson (19103)*, Linn (19113), Mitchell (19131), Winnebagao (19189)*, Winneshiek (19191), Worth (19195)
ID Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Caribou (16029), Clark (16033), Custer (16037), Fremont (16043), Lemhi (16059), Teton (16081)
MA Berkshire (25003), Essex (25009)*, Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013)
ME Aroostook (23003)
NJ Bergen (34003)*, Hudson (34017)*, Morris (34027)*, Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
OH Columbiana (39029), Erie (39043)*, Geauga (39055), Logan (39091), Portage (39133), Summit (39153), Williams (39171)
PA Erie (42049)*, Huntingdon (42061)*, Lehigh (42077)*, Monroe (42089), Northampton (42095)
SD Day (46037), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Pennington (46103), Roberts (46109)
WA Pend Oreille (53051), Stevens (53065)
WY Albany (56001), Fremont (56013), Park (56029), Sublette (56035), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001)+*, Fish (01010003)+*, Aroostook (01010004)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Charles (01090001)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Rondout (02020007)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*
04 St. Joseph (04100003)+, Sandusky (04100011)+*, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+*
05 Mahoning (05030103)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, Winnebago (07080203)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+*
10 Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201)+, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+, Upper South Platte (10190002)+, Crow (10190009)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper San Juan (14080101)+*
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Teton (17040204)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Birch (17040216)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Lemhi (17060204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Hoary willow is a low- to medium-sized willow, generally to 4 feet tall. The lower surfaces of the leaves are covered with a dense, white, felt-like tomentum, comprised of fine, tangled hairs. The catkins are nearly sessile, but may have several, small leafy bracts.
General Description: From CNHP Wetland Guide 2012: Erect low shrub, to 1 m tall, often forming clones by layering; year-old twigs dark gray-brown to yellow-brown, not glaucous, woolly in patches or floccose to glabrescent, yellow-brown to red-brown or gray-brown, densely (white) woolly or tomentose, sometimes floccose; leaves glaucous on underside but usually obscured by dense hairs, narrowly elliptic, oblong, or lance-linear, 5-9 cm x 0.8-1.8 cm, entire or remotely crenulate, densely white woolly hairy on underside, upperside glabrate to loosely woolly hairy, petioles 3-12 mm long; catkins flowering as leaves emerge; staminate stout or subglobose, 17-39 × 8-16 mm, flowering branchlet 0.5-7 mm; pistillate densely to moderately densely flowered, stout or slender, 20-66 × 9-18 mm, flowering branchlet 1-24 mm; floral bract tawny or brown, 1.2-1.8 mm, apex rounded or acute, below hairy, hairs straight to wavy; staminate catkins narrowly oblong to oblong, 0.6-1 mm; filaments distinct or connate less than 1/2 their lengths; anthers purple turning yellow, ellipsoid, long-cylindrical, or globose, 0.4-0.6 mm; pistillate catkins oblong, 0.4-1 mm; ovary pear-shaped, beak sometimes slightly bulged below styles; ovules 12-18 per ovary; styles 0.3-1.9 mm; capsules hairy, 4-6 mm

Technical Description: Freely branched low shrub (0.6) 5-12 (15) dm tall; twigs densely and closely white-tomentose when young, some of the tomentum generally persistent into the second year; stipules usually small and caducous, or larger and more persistent on vigorous young shoots; petioles mostly 5-10mm long; leaves narrow, mostly oblanceolate to narrowly oblong or less often lanceolate, the better-developed ones mostly 4.5-8.5 (15) cm long and 0.7-1.5 (2.3) cm wide, 3.5-10 times as long as wide, the margins revolute and entire, the lower surface densely and usually permanently white-tomentose with very fine, tangled hairs, the upper surface rugose and glabrate or only thinly tomentose, dark green under the tomentum; aments coetaneous, nearly sessile, but the short peduncle generally with some leafy-textured bracts 5-15 mm long; scales brown, persistent, woolly-villous; staminate catkins (1) 1.5-2.5 cm long, about 1 cm thick or a little less; stamens 2, with purple anthers and glabrous, free filaments; pistillate catkins (2) 3-5 (6) cm long at maturity, the fruits often rather loosely arranged, though the pedicel is very short (up to about 1mm long); ovaries and capsules tomentose, the capsule 5-7.5 mm long; style and stigmas red or reddish, the style 0.8-1.7 mm long, sometimes divided; stigmas bifid, 0.2-0.5 mm long (Cronquist 1964).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Salix candida is one of the most distinctive willows, due largely to leaf characteristics. The thinly tomentose early leaves are evidently glaucuous beneath, and so, early in the season these plants somewhat resemble S. brachycarpa, which is similar in its habitat, stature and floral morphology. S. candida, however, has notably longer and narrower leaves.

From CNHP Wetland Guide 2012: Main Characteristics:
Erect low shrub, to 1 m tall
Leaves narrow, densely white-tomentose below, upper surface dark green and shiny, with strongly revolute margins
Twigs of this year's growth densely woolly or tomentose
Found in calcareous or rich fens

Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Throughout its range, S. candida occurs in bogs and swampy places (Cronquist, 1964). Occasional in wet, usually alkaline, habitats including: CAREX-BETULA GLANDULOSA fens, LARIX LARICINA fens, BETULA GLANDULOSA-SALIX thickets at edges of ponds and on river terraces (B73ARG01AKUS).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: FORAGE/BROWSE
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov1990
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Williams, C.L.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Oct1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KMH

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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