Sagittaria fasciculata - E.O. Beal
Bunched Arrowhead
Other Common Names: bunched arrowhead
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sagittaria fasciculata E.O. Beal (TSN 38918)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138698
Element Code: PMALI04090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Water-Plantain Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Alismatales Alismataceae Sagittaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sagittaria fasciculata
Taxonomic Comments: The concept of Sagittaria fasciculata in Kartesz (1994) is narrower than that in Kartesz (1999). Kartesz (1994) recognized S. graminea var. macrocarpa. However, Kartesz (1999) includes S. graminea var. macrocarpa as S. fasciculata; Weakley (2012) and Flora North America vol. 22 also recognize that material called var. macrocarpa was mostly misapplied and is appropriately attributed to S. fasciculata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Mar2015
Global Status Last Changed: 11Dec2006
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to a small area of the Carolinas and restricted to very specific aquatic habitat conditions, including continuous seepage. There are several on-going threats including land conversion, negative hydrological changes and exotic species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States North Carolina (S1), South Carolina (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (30Oct1979)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to North Carolina and South Carolina. Extant in Henderson Co., North Carolina and Greenville Co., South Carolina and historical in Henderson and Buncombe Cos., North Carolina.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The USFWS Recovery Plan and 5 Year Review (2014) recognize 11 populations, where a population is defined as colonies of plants connected by drainage and in close proximity to one another (< 2 km). 37 colonies are recognized in these 11 populations as of 2014. Element Occurrences (EOs) fall within these 11 populations; and between North Carolina and South Carolina Natural Heritage Programs there are 44 EOs including extirpated occurrences.

Population Size Comments: Locally abundant in upper Piedmont, in Greenville County, SC. The entire species population size is estimated to be between 97,500-120,000 rosettes (USFWS 2014).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The extremely limited distribution of this species makes it highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices; its habitat requirements make it especially vulnerable to sedimentation and succession (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Most of its habitat has been drained (Weakley 2012) and land conversion appears to be a predominant threat. At existing sites alteration of waterflow, both increase and decrease of waterflow, is a threat (USFWS 2014). Exotic plant species are also present in colonies where this species occurs and are a threat. Other threats include grazing and trampling by cattle, and scouring from flash flooding (USFWS 2014).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Short-term Trend Comments: The 5 year review of this species by the USFWS (2014) summarizes what information is available on population trends. Most populations in North Carolina were visited at least once in the late 1990's through the mid 2000's, many of the colonies within the populations weren't revisited more than once if any. For those that were revisited, declines were noted due to stagnation of the water, sedimentation, drying substrate or insufficient waterflow. Populations in South Carolina haven't been revisited since initial work in 2000 (USFWS 2014).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Can withstand timbering, but not grazing or drainage of habitat.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to North Carolina and South Carolina. Extant in Henderson Co., North Carolina and Greenville Co., South Carolina and historical in Henderson and Buncombe Cos., North Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Buncombe (37021)*, Henderson (37089)
SC Greenville (45045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Tyger (03050107)+, Enoree (03050108)+, Saluda (03050109)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An aquatic perennial herb with erect, emergent leaves, 1.5-3.5 dm long. In May and June, 1-several flowering stems appear bearing white flowers arranged in whorls; female flowers on the lowest whorls, males on the upper ones.
Technical Description: see Radford et al., 1968 (B68RAD01HQUS).
Diagnostic Characteristics: This non-sagittate-leaved Sagittaria is distinguished from the others of its complex in the Southeast by a combination of flattened phyllodia, blades of emergent leaves relatively broad but at the same time female pedicels not recurved, the anther definitely longer than the filament, and the bracts strongly fused.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: According to Cooper et al., 1977 (B77COO01HQUS), this species may be limited to vegetative means of reproduction as no seedlings have been found. However, Newberry, 1987 (U87NEW01HQUS) reported seed set in the populations she studied, though the presence of seedlings was not noted.
Ecology Comments: Sagittaria fasciculata typically is found in very gently sloping areas with slow, continuous seepage of cool, clear water. The continuous seepage appears to be the most important factor in the ecology of the species. Canopy closure may differ greatly in different populations but the slow continuous seepage is one factor that is always present.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Habitat Comments: Very gently sloping areas with some standing water refreshed by slow continuous seepage of cool clear water. Appropriate habitat for this species is typically found in a narrow band at the bluff-floodplain ecotone. The seeps originate at the base of the bluffs and Sagittaria fasciculata is generally found near, but not at, the origin of the seep (water flow at the seep origin is usually too swift or too heavy to allow for colonization). Appropriate habitats often continue along the edge of the bluff downslope from the seep, but generally do not extend far into the floodplain proper because there the seepage tends to spread out and the water stagnates.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E.; rev. K. Maybury, 1996, rev. Maybury (2006), rev. L. Oliver (2014)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30May1990

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cooper, J.E., S.S. Robinson, and J.B. Funderburg (eds.). 1977. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 444 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 352 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1983. Where have all the wildflowers gone? A region-by-region guide to threatened or endangered U.S. wildflowers. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York. 239 pp.

  • Newberry, G. 1991. Factors affection the survival of the rare plant, Sagittaria fasciculata E.O. Beal (Alismataceae). Castanea 56(1): 59-64.

  • Newberry, G., and M.Q. Hague. 1987. Progress report on monitoring of Sagittaria sites, Greenville County, South Carolina. Funded by South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Dept., and South Carolina Nature Conservancy. Columbia, SC.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Sutter, R.D. 1983. Recovery plan for the bunched arrowhead (Sagittaria fasciculata) A nationally endangered species in North and South Carolina. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4, Atlanta, GA. 29 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2014. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation of Bunched arrowhead (Sagitarria fasciculata). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Asheville Ecological Services Field Office, Asheville, N.C. Accessed on 3/6/14 at: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4362.pdf

  • Weakley, A. S. 2012. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Working Draft of 28 September 2012. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm (Accessed 2012).

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