Spiranthes vernalis - Engelm. & Gray
Twisted Ladies'-tresses
Other English Common Names: Spring Ladies'-tresses
Other Common Names: spring ladies'-tresses
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray (TSN 43453)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153069
Element Code: PMORC2B0Z0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Spiranthes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Spiranthes vernalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Sep1984
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S2), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4S5), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S1), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S2), Michigan (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1S3), New Jersey (S3S4), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S1S2), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (S2), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: AL, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: AL, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
IA Adams (19003), Fremont (19071)*, Harrison (19085)*, Monona (19133), Union (19175), Woodbury (19193)
IL Bond (17005), Clinton (17027), Edwards (17047), Jackson (17077), Jasper (17079), Johnson (17087), Madison (17119), Pope (17151), Saline (17165), Williamson (17199)
IN Crawford (18025), Dubois (18037), Harrison (18061), Jefferson (18077), Lawrence (18093), Perry (18123), Scott (18143)
MA Barnstable (25001)*, Bristol (25005)*, Dukes (25007), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021)*, Worcester (25027)
NE Lancaster (31109), Saunders (31155)
NY Bronx (36005)*, Richmond (36085)*, Suffolk (36103), Westchester (36119)*
PA Chester (42029), Delaware (42045), Lancaster (42071)*, Montgomery (42091)*, Philadelphia (42101)*
RI Kent (44003)*, Providence (44007)*, Washington (44009)
SD Clay (46027), Union (46127)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Nashua (01070004)+, Concord (01070005)+, Charles (01090001)+*, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Bronx (02030102)+*, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+
05 Little Wabash (05120114)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Saline (05140204)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
07 Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)+, Shoal (07140203)+
10 Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Vermillion (10170102)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+*, Salt (10200203)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+*, West Nishnabotna (10240002)+*, East Nishnabotna (10240003)+*, Nishnabotna (10240004)+*, Nodaway (10240010)+, Platte (10240012)+
CC CC-40 (CC-40)+*
CH CH-11 (CH-11)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A slender herb bearing 4 to 5 keeled leaves and up to 50 small whitish flowers in a single spiral on a terminal raceme.
Technical Description: Roots many, stout, fasciculate. Stem slender, 0.15-1 mm tall. Leaves basal, normally persistent, often extending slightly up the scape, linear or linear-lanceolate 5-15 cm long, quickly reduced to scales. Racemes dense, 1 ranked, 5-12 cm long, usually twisted and finely pubescent with simple hairs. Floral bracts lanceolate-acuminate, to 15 mm long. Flowers white to creamy. Sepals and lateral petals lineaar-lanceolate 6-8 mm long. Lip pubescent beneath, ovate in general outline, 5-8 mm long, broadest near the middle. Ovary stout sessile. Column 2 mm long, anther dorsal with one pair of pollinia. Capsule ellipsoid, to 8 mm long and 6 mm wide at maturity.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Spike conspicuously spiraled in a single rank. Leaves narrow (linear lanceolate). Hairs of pubescence pointed. Lip with a yellowish center.
Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Ecology Comments: Moist open areas, meadows, swales, bogs.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Apr1991
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Brackley, F. E. 1985. The orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87:1-117.

  • Brackley, F.E. 1985. The Orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87:1-117. A85BRA01PAUS

  • Correll, D.S. 1950 [1978]. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 400 pp.

  • Correll, D.S. 1950. Native Orchids of North America, North of Mexico. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, Mass. USA. B50COR01PAUS

  • Evans, M. and S. Woodham. 1978. The vascular flora of Draper's Bluff, Union-Johnson counties, Illinois. Trans. Ill State Acad. Sci. 71:189-221.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford University Press, New York. 723 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K. Wooten, J.W. 1970. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. USA. B70GOD01PAUS

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 712 pp.

  • Henry, L.K., W.E. BUKER AND D.L. PEARTH. 1975. WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA ORCHIDS. CASTANEA 40 (2):93-171.

  • Henry, L.K., W.E. Buker and D.L. Pearth. 1975. Western Pennsylvania Orchids. Castanea 40 (2):93-171.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The Native Orchids of United States and Canada Excluding Florida. B75LUE01PAUS

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Natural Heritage Program Files. 1996. Unpublished.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Schwegman, J.E. and R.H. Mohlenbrock. 1966. Botanical field studies in the southern tip of Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 59:369-372.

  • Sheviak, C. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinios State Museum, Springfield, IL. 89p.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers XIV. Ill. State Mus., Springfield, IL. 89pp.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. Notes on some rare Illinois orchids. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 67:122-130.

  • Sheviak, C.T. 1974. An Introduction to the Ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae, Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers XIV, Springfield, IL, U.S.A. B74SHE01PAUS

  • Stuckey, I.H. 1967. Environmental Factors and the Growth of Native Orchids. American Journal of Botany, 54:232-241. A67STU01PAUS.

  • Stuckey, I.H. 1967. Environmental factors and the growth of native orchids. American Journal of Botany 54(2):232-241.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan Flora Part I. Kingsport Press, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. B72VOS01PAUS

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

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