Sagittaria teres - S. Wats.
Slender Arrowhead
Other English Common Names: Quill-leaved Sagittaria
Other Common Names: slender arrowhead
Synonym(s): Sagittaria graminea var. teres (S. Wats.) Bogin
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sagittaria teres S. Wats. (TSN 504939)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149826
Element Code: PMALI040T0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Water-Plantain Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Alismatales Alismataceae Sagittaria
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sagittaria teres
Taxonomic Comments: Once considered a variety of Sagittaria graminea (S. graminea var. teres), this taxon is now regarded as a distinct species by most treatments (e.g., Hellquist and Crow 1981, Kartesz 1994 and 1999, Flora of North America 2000). Reasons given include its limited habitat, the fact that it fruits abundantly in in New England while S. graminea does not, its distinctive achene and stamen morphology, some distinctive vegetative characteristics, and a lack of interfertility with S. graminea var. graminea (and with S. isoetiformis) (Beal 1960, Wooten 1973, Hellquist and Crow 1981). Subsequent research has shown that it is apparently most closely related to S. isoetiformis, a species of the southeastern coastal plain, with which it shares phyllodial leaves and CAM photosynthesis (Flora of North America 2000 cited in Harvey and Haines 2003).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Mar2010
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jun1990
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Endemic to coastal plain ponds of the northeastern United States, Sagittaria teres occurs most abundantly on the coastal plain of southeastern Massachusetts, with scattered additional populations inland in the Connecticut River Valley (Massachusetts) as well as on the coastal plain of Rhode Island, New York (Long Island), New Jersey, and New Hampshire. Approximately 71 occurrences are believed extant, nearly 80% in Massachusetts. Total population numbers at least 50,000 plants and possibly over 100,000 plants. Like many coastal plain pondshore plants, S. teres requires pronounced water-level fluctuations, acidic, nutrient-poor water and substrate, and an open, exposed shoreline free from major soil disturbance in order to persist. It is therefore threatened by any activity that changes hydrologic regime, water quality, or soil integrity. Development is a significant threat, as it can result in unnatural water table draw-down as well as increases in nutrient and sediment inputs, which degrade water quality and increase establishment of invasive plants. Intense recreational use, including boating, shoreline raking, swimming/wading, and ORV use, is also a significant threat in some parts of the range. Importantly, these recreation-related impacts can (and often do) occur in ponds on "protected" as well as unprotected lands.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), Massachusetts (S3), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (S2), New York (S1), Rhode Island (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to the northeastern coastal plain of the United States. Occurs most abundantly on the coastal plain of southeastern Massachusetts (Hellquist and Crow 1981), from which its range extends south through the coastal plain of Rhode Island to Long Island, New York and New Jersey. Disjunct inland populations also occur in the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts. An occurrence in New Hampshire was first reported in 2003, extending the known range northward by approximately 75 km (Harvey and Haines 2003). Reports south of New Jersey are false. Among coastal plain endemic vascular plants, Sorrie and Weakley (1999) note that this species shares a "southeastern Massachusetts to southern New Jersey and adjacent Delmarva Peninsula" distribution pattern with at least 14 other taxa.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 71 occurrences are believed extant, nearly 80% of which are in Massachusetts. An additional 24 occurrences are considered historical (also mostly in Massachusetts) and 2 are known to have been extirpated (in New York).

Population Size Comments: Described as "common in sandy acid coastal plain freshwater ponds of southeastern Massachusetts, rare inland in Massachusetts and Rhode Island" by Hellquist and Crow (1981). Accurate occurrence counts are difficult to obtain for this species, as vegetative plants and plants below the water surface can be challenging to census. Survey numbers, where available, may only reflect the number of flowering plants or leaves washed up on a shore. Populations are easiest to count in years of extreme draw-down, but only a small proportion of the known populations have been assessed under such conditions. A rough and conservative estimate of Massachusetts plants yielded a total of at least 50,000, although observations are insufficiently detailed to assess whether these are ramets or genets (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). Occurrences in New York appear to range from 40 to 300 plants. Two New Jersey occurrences have hundreds of plants, but others appear to be smaller. One Rhode Island occurrence apparently has thousands of plants, with others are smaller. The New Hampshire occurrence consists of vegetative plants over approximately 400 meters of shoreline (Harvey and Haines 2003), but an estimate of the number of individuals is not available.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Approximately 20-35 occurrences are believed to have excellent or good viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by any activity that changes the hydrologic regime, water quality, or soil integrity of its coastal plain pond habitat (MA NHESP 2007).

Throughout the northeastern United States, coastal plain ponds and their immediate surrounding landscape face significant development pressure. Development includes new construction as well as conversion of former seasonal homes to permanent residences. Impacts include (1) increases in domestic and commercial water usage, resulting in draw-down, and (2) increases in nutrient and sediment inputs due to stress on septic systems, planting and fertilization of lawns and gardens, pet waste, agricultural runoff, road runoff, and shoreline modification.With the construction and inputs of nutrients come invasive species and other plants not naturally found in shoreline habitats (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). For example, at several Massachusetts ponds where inputs of nutrients are believed to be degrading water quality, algal and aquatic plant growth appears to be denser than in the past; in at least one location, Cabomba caroliniana is so thick in the S. teres zone that it likely poses a significant threat (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). The New Hampshire site is located in a lake in which Myriophyllum heterophyllum is established; control of M. heterophyllum at this site is complicated by the lake's use as a public water supply (Harvey and Haines 2003).

Coastal plain ponds are also threatened by intense recreational use in some parts of this species' range. Impacts result from activities such as digging, dragging and launching boats, raking the shore, clearing pond bottom vegetation for swimming, and wading (MA NHESP 2007, J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). Impacts from all-terrain vehicles, foot traffic, camping, horse trampling, and waste dumping have also been observed (Tiner 2003, MA NHESP 2007). In New York, management of pond waters for aesthetics and recreation using copper sulfate and grass carp has been noted as a threat to plants that live in the zones closer to the pond center, such as S. teres (Zaremba and Lamont 1993). Although S. teres is not threatened by upland beach activities to the same degree as plants higher on the pond shore, it seems to be absent from recreational areas, which may indicate sensitivity to foot traffic from waders. However, in at least some ponds where S. teres is present, there are vegetative colonies beneath the surface that are mostly out of reach of foot traffic (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). Recreational activities are considered a less significant threat in New York as compared to Massachusetts, because New York ponds tend to be smaller and not as suitable for activities such as swimming and boating (Zaremba and Lamont 1993).

In Massachusetts, it appears that certain threats are increasing in magnitude, but a few may be decreasing with increased regulation (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010).

Short-term Trend Comments: Trends are difficult to quantify for this species because reported population numbers are somewhat dependent on (1) water level in a given year (more visible in low water year), and (2) whether counts include only plants above the water surface or along the shore edge, or make a more complete survey including snorkeling to record additional vegetative plants (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010). Overall, this species is believed to be doing reasonably well in Massachusetts, although its habitat faces significant threats (J. Garrett pers. comm. 2010).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Only appears when water level is low.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Endemic to the northeastern coastal plain of the United States. Occurs most abundantly on the coastal plain of southeastern Massachusetts (Hellquist and Crow 1981), from which its range extends south through the coastal plain of Rhode Island to Long Island, New York and New Jersey. Disjunct inland populations also occur in the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts. An occurrence in New Hampshire was first reported in 2003, extending the known range northward by approximately 75 km (Harvey and Haines 2003). Reports south of New Jersey are false. Among coastal plain endemic vascular plants, Sorrie and Weakley (1999) note that this species shares a "southeastern Massachusetts to southern New Jersey and adjacent Delmarva Peninsula" distribution pattern with at least 14 other taxa.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, NH, NJ, NY, RI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Barnstable (25001), Hampden (25013), Middlesex (25017)*, Plymouth (25023), Worcester (25027)
NH Hillsborough (33011), Rockingham (33015)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Burlington (34005)*, Camden (34007), Cape May (34009)*, Ocean (34029)
NY Suffolk (36103)
RI Washington (44009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Nashua (01070004)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Charles (01090001)+*, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+
02 Northern Long Island (02030201)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial aquatic plant of the water-plantain family (Alismataceae). Plants may occur as land forms, but are commonly submerged. Plants have thin, pointed, quill-like, bladeless leaves, arising from the base. The flowering stalk, which has white flowers, is raised above the water or borne on a land plant. Blooming occurs July to September.
General Description: A perennial aquatic plant of the water-plantain family (Alismataceae). Plants may occur as land forms, but are commonly submerged. Plants have thin, pointed, quill-like, bladeless leaves, arising from the base. The flowering stalk, which has white flowers, is raised above the water or borne on a land plant. Blooming occurs July to September.
Technical Description: From Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2000): "Herbs, perennial, to 80 cm; rhizomes absent; stolons present; corms present. Leaves emersed or submersed, sessile, phyllodial, nearly terete; emersed, to 60 x 0.15-0.7 cm; submersed, 3.5-18.5 x 0.15-0.4 cm. Inflorescences racemes, of 1-4 whorls, emersed, 2.5-4 x 2.5-6 cm; peduncles 10-80 cm; bracts connate more than or equal to total length, subulate, 2-3 mm, delicate, not papillose; fruiting pedicels obliquely ascending, filiform, 1 cm. Flowers to 1.5 cm diam.; sepals recurved, not enclosing flower; filaments dilated, equaling anthers, pubescent; pistillate pedicellate, without ring of sterile stamens. Fruiting heads 0.6-1 cm diam.; achenes obovoid-cuneate, abaxially keeled, 2-3 x 1.2-1.5 mm, beaked; faces not tuberculate, wings absent, glands 1-2; beak erect to horizontal, 0.3-0.4 mm."
Diagnostic Characteristics: Most co-occurring Sagittaria species have at least some sagittate (arrow-shaped) leaves; this species' linear, terete (rounded in cross section), and tapering leaves clearly differentiate it from those. S. subulata and S. graminea have linear, unlobed leaves that somewhat resemble the leaves of S. teres; however, both of these species have flat rather than terete leaves.
Reproduction Comments: Monoecious (with separate male and female flowers located on the same plant). Reproduces sexually and asexually. Self-compatible, but because female and male flowers within an inflorescence are rarely open on the same day, self-fertilization primarily results from geitonogamy via insect pollinators. No known problems with fruit set. Plants also produce new ramets via thin stolons, and each ramet develops a small corm (Edwards and Sharitz 2003).
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: In sandy (sometimes muddy or peaty), acidic, nutrient-poor soil, along the margins of swamps and in shallow freshwater ponds. Plants are submerged along shallow bottoms or lower shores or emersed, usually later in the season as water volume declines. Primarily in coastal plain ponds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a community of limited global distribution. These ponds occur in depressions (often "kettle holes" formed by large chunks of ice breaking off the retreating glaciers) on glacial moraine and outwash deposits, where ground water flows to the land surface and rain water collects. Water levels fluctuate widely both seasonally and annually in response to water table change, which alternately exposes and floods the gradually sloping, sandy pond margins. The periodic high water levels eliminate woody seedlings that may colonize these ponds during drawdowns, maintaining an herbaceous community that develops as concentric zones of vegetation, from shallow open water to upland shrub borders. Zaremba and Lamont (1993) divided coastal plain pond shore communities into five distinct vegetation zones, of which Sagittaria teres was placed in the second-to-innermost zone, the organic exposed pond bottom. This zone is more frequently flooded than the adjacent sandy exposed pond bottom zone and has a greater accumulation of organics, with submerged and floating-leaved aquatic plants (e.g., S. teres) more abundant in high water years and annual species more abundant in low water years. Species associated with S. teres include Eriocaulon aquaticum, Lobelia dortmanna, Gratiola aurea, Juncus pelocarpus, Juncus militaris, Eleocharis robbinsii, Pontederia cordata, Nymphaea odorata, Sagittaria latifolia, Utricularia cornuta, Sparganium angustifolium, Sagittaria graminea, and Sagittaria engelmanniana. Associated rare species include Eleocharis tricostata, Eupatorium leucolepis var. novae-angliae, Hypericum adpressum, Rhynchospora nitens, Rhynchospora torreyana, Rhynchospora scirpoides, Rotala ramosior, Utricularia resupinata, and Sabatia kennedyana. 0-100 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Effective management requires protection of the hydrology, water quality, and soil integrity of this species' coastal plain pond habitat. Like many other coastal plain pondshore plants, S. teres requires pronounced water-level fluctuations, acidic, nutrient-poor water and substrate, and an open, exposed shoreline free from major soil disturbance (MA NHESP 2007). Maintaining these key habitat elements may require exclusion of new wells and septic systems, prohibitions on fertilizer use, and restrictions on recreational use of the pondshore. Recreational activities should be diverted from known population locations by providing alternative locations (MA NHESP 2007). Sites should also be monitored to enable early detection of invasive exotic plant species; invasions are most likely at sites that have received heavy soil disturbance or nutrient inputs, and at boat access sites. Exotic species that could establish on coastal plain pondshores include Phragmites australis ssp. australis, Salix cinerea, and Lythrum salicaria, while potential aquatic invaders include Myriophyllum heterophyllum and Utricularia inflata (MA NHESP 2007).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: Annual average of over 1000 plants over five years of surveys with plants occupying habitat of greater than 100 square meters or more than 100 linear meters of shoreline. High quality habitat with few exotics and intact natural processes including water level fluctuation and low nutrient conditions.
Good Viability: Annual average of 100- 1000 plants over five years of surveys with plants occupying habitat of greater than 10 square meters or more than 50 linear meters of shoreline. Good quality habitat which may have some exotics and minor evidence of altered natural processes, such as disturbance to wetland shoreline, beach grooming, and nutrient flow in the wetland.
Fair Viability: Annual average of 20- 100 plants over 5 years of surveys with plants occupying any size area. Habitat may support exotic species and may have physical substrate disturbance and elevated levels of nutrients flowing into the wetalnd. Water levels may also be regulated or depressed by groundwater or pondwater withdrawal. Altered conditions in the wetland should, however. be reversible with appropriate management.
Poor Viability: Less than 20 plants over 3 years of surveys with plants occupying any size area. Poor habitat dominated by exotics with low water quality and altered hydrology that cannot be resolved with appropriate management. Also includes sites with high levels of copper sulfate use or grass carp to control aquatic nuisance vegetation.
Justification: A-rank justification: Good quality wetlands and ponds may have large patches or many smaller patches of plants that contain large numbers of stems. Patch size and number of plants may fluctuate greatly with year-to-year water levels.
Minimum viability criteria: Extremely small populations of loesss than 20 plants averaged over 3 years are probably not viable. A small population may occur when the species first colonizes an area, but should increase rapidly. Water level fluctuations appear to be necessary to limit succession. Wetlands with stable water levels are not likely to support S. teres long-term. High levels of nutrients are also likely to favor invasive aquatic species which may out-compete S. teres.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03Oct1997
Author: MANHESP?
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Jul1983
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Greene, L. (1983), rev. K. Gravuer (2010)
Management Information Edition Date: 29Mar2010
Management Information Edition Author: Gravuer, K.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bogin, C. 1955. Revision of the genus Sagittaria (Alismataceae). Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 9(2): 179-231.

  • Crow, G.E., and C.B. Hellquist. 1981. Aquatic Vascular Plants of New England: Part 3. Alismataceae. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire. 32 p.

  • Crow, Garrett E. 1982. New England's Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants. Prepared for the United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region. June 1982.

  • Edwards, A.L. and R.R. Sharitz. 2003. Clonal Diversity in Two Rare Perennial Plants: Sagittaria isoetiformis and Sagittaria teres (Alismataceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 164(1): 181-188.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 352 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Harvey, L. and A. Haines. 2003. New England Note: Sagittaria teres (Alismataceae) in New Hampshire. Rhodora 105(923): 282-285.

  • Hellquist, C.B. and G.E. Crow. 1981. Aquatic vascular plant. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station University of New Hampshire. Station Bulletin 518.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • House, Homer D. 1924. Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York State. New York State Museum Bulletin 254:1-758.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program (MA NHESP). 2007, June last update. Fact Sheet: Terete Arrowhead (Sagittaria teres). Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA. Online. Available: http://www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/species_info/nhfacts/sagittaria_teres.pdf (Accessed 2010).

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Charles J. Sheviak. 1981. Rare Plants of New York State. Bull No. 445. New York State Museum. Univ. of New York. State Ed. Department Albany, NY.

  • NatureServe: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. 2003. Version 1.7. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. Available: http://www.natureserve.org/. (Accessed: May 20, 2003).

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Ogden, E.C. 1974. Anatomical patterns of some aquatic vascular plants of New York. New York State Museum Bull. 424.

  • Sorrie, B.A. 1987. Notes on the rare flora of Massachusetts. Rhodora 89(858): 113-196.

  • Taylor, Norman. 1915. Flora of the vicinity of New York. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden vol. V. New York, NY.

  • Tiner, R. W. 2003. Geographically isolated wetlands of the United States. Wetlands 23:494-516.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Wooten, J.W. 1973. Taxonomy of seven species of Sagittaria from eastern North America. Brittonia 25:64-74.

  • Zaremba, R.E. and E.E. Lamont. 1993. The status of the Coastal Plain Pondshore community in New York. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 120:180-187.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.