Rudbeckia auriculata - (Perdue) Kral
Eared Coneflower
Other Common Names: eared coneflower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rudbeckia auriculata (Perdue) Kral (TSN 36767)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143162
Element Code: PDAST85010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Rudbeckia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rudbeckia auriculata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Jan2006
Global Status Last Changed: 26Jan2006
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Reported in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida; and almost completely restricted to the Coastal Plain. Although over 20 occurrences are known to exist, the majority of these inhabit highly modified habitat conditions such as utility corridors, roadsides, and pastures. Only a small number of known occurrences inhabit good quality examples of native habitat. Herbicide application on roadside or powerline rights-of way is the biggest threat in these situations. Additional threats include grazing and silvicultural practices that would impact soil hydrology, and encroachment of woody species into the open habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Florida (S1), Georgia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Alabama - mostly on the Coastal Plain but also (rarely) in contiguous areas of Appalachian Alabama (Kral 1983). Also reported in Georgia (Georgia Natural Heritage Program and Kartesz 1999) and Florida (Linda Chafin pers. comm.).

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twenty-two extant occurrences are currently known: Alabama (19), Georgia (1), Florida (2).

Population Size Comments: Individual populations range from <50 to 1,000-2,500 individuals. Largest occurrences inhabit disturbed areas such as utility corridors and roadsides where the forest canopy has been removed.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few to some (4-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Several occurrences have good viability, but only four occur in high quality habitat.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Occurrences in natural habitats are declining as a result of incompatible forestry practices and agriculture. Given its preference for open, moist areas, however, the species has become well established in disturbed sites, particularly utility corridors and roadsides where woody vegetation is periodically mowed.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Reproduces quickly given favorable growing conditions.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Requires mesic to wet soils, not specific to pH. Excessive shade and hydrological alterations are detrimental to species viability.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Alabama - mostly on the Coastal Plain but also (rarely) in contiguous areas of Appalachian Alabama (Kral 1983). Also reported in Georgia (Georgia Natural Heritage Program and Kartesz 1999) and Florida (Linda Chafin pers. comm.).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Barbour (01005), Blount (01009), Covington (01039), Crenshaw (01041), Geneva (01061), Jefferson (01073), Pike (01109), Shelby (01117), St. Clair (01115)
FL Okaloosa (12091)
GA Early (13099), Webster (13307)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+, Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Pea (03140202)+, Upper Conecuh (03140301)+, Patsaliga (03140302)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+*, Cahaba (03150202)+, Locust (03160111)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A robust perennial herb with stems, commonly 2-3 m tall, arising from a large basal rosette of leaves. Numerous flower heads with bright yellow rays surrounding a hemispheric, purple-brown disk bloom from late summer to early fall.
Diagnostic Characteristics: The combination of eared leaves and large stature (to 3 m in height) serves to distinguish R. auriculata from others in the genus.

Riverine Habitat(s): SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Full sun of open bogs, seeps, swamps, ditches, swales, and wet openings in woodlands. Sometimes in the partial shade at edges of hardwood swamps. Soils are typically highly organic. In bogs and seeps, it will appear in clearings amongst Alnus, Myrica, Cephalanthus, and Cyrilla in association with various sedges (particularly Rhynchospora) and wetland grasses, bog orchids and liliaceae. A logging of the low hardwood stands it often grows around or in would probably increase its habitat providing this was not accompanied by drainage. The same could be said of the pine flatwoods areas it is in. It would not survive under the closed canopy of pine plantation or dense hardwood regeneration.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: To ensure the long-term viability of R. auriculata, attention should focus on preserving populations occupying native, relatively undisturbed habitat. Sustaining such occurrences will require the following management practices:

1. Eradicate exotic species.

2. Carefully create canopy gaps through selective timber removal (hand thinning recommended) to promote growth and reproduction.

3. Prepare and implement monitoring protocols to assess the impacts of invasive competitors, drainage, and other threats toward maintaining the viability of existing occurrences.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: A naturally occurring population containing 500 or more mature plants in relatively pristine habitat conditions (where ecological processes are relatively unaltered) free from exotic or undesirable vegetation, and with additional habitat available for colonization.

Good Viability: A naturally occurring population that contains 100 to 499 mature plants in habitat with some evidence of intact natural disturbance regime where some additional habitat is available for colonization; some exotic or undesirable weedy species may be present, but can be controlled. Sites can be restored to A-rank conditions.

Fair Viability: A natural population that contains 30 to 99 mature plants; natural disturbance regime may be disrupted, available habitat may be limited, and undesirable vegetation may be present. Restoration to B-rank specifications is possible.

Poor Viability: A population containing less than 30 mature plants, reproduction may be limited, habitat and natural processes may be disrupted or destroyed, and undesirable plant species are numerous occupying otherwise available habitat.

Justification: Only four extant occurrences in native habitat are known for Rudbeckia auriculata with no studies highlighting population dynamics having been conducted. When this information becomes available, the EO specs for this taxon should be reassessed.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 26Jan2006
Author: A. Schotz
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: A. Schotz
Management Information Edition Date: 26Jan2006
Management Information Edition Author: A. Schotz
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Jan2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): A. Schotz

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Cronquist, A. 1980. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 1. Asteraceae. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 261 pp.

  • Diamond, A.R. 1992. Status report on Rudbeckia auriculata, clasping Susan. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jackson, Mississippi. 43 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

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