Rotala ramosior - (L.) Koehne
Toothcup
Other English Common Names: Lowland Toothcup
Other Common Names: lowland rotala
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne (TSN 27115)
French Common Names: rotala rameux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147762
Element Code: PDLYT0B030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Loosestrife Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Myrtales Lythraceae Rotala
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rotala ramosior
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Aug1984
Global Status Last Changed: 29Aug1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1N2 (10Sep2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (S1), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S1), Connecticut (S1S2), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S4S5), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S2), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S1S2), Nebraska (S2S4), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (S3), New York (S2), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Oregon (S2), Pennsylvania (S3), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (S1), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (S1), Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):E,T
Comments on COSEWIC: The species was considered a single unit and designated Endangered in April 1999. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Split into two populations in November 2014. The Southern Mountain population was designated Endangered in November 2014 and the Great Lakes Plains population was designated Threatened in November 2014.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: MA to MN, south to FL, AK, TX, and Mex.; WA to nw. MT south to CA; S. America. Peripheral.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: MA to MN, south to FL, AK, TX, and Mex.; WA to nw. MT south to CA; S. America. Peripheral.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WA, WI, WV
Canada BC, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Graham (04009)*, Santa Cruz (04023)
CO Boulder (08013)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), New London (09011)*
IA Black Hawk (19013), Boone (19015), Cedar (19031)*, Clinton (19045), Delaware (19055), Des Moines (19057), Henry (19087)*, Jasper (19099)*, Jefferson (19101)*, Johnson (19103)*, Jones (19105)*, Lee (19111), Louisa (19115), Muscatine (19139), Palo Alto (19147)*, Polk (19153)*
MA Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005)*, Essex (25009)*, Hampden (25013), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021)*
MI Allegan (26005), Barry (26015)*, Berrien (26021), Cass (26027), Kalamazoo (26077), Lake (26085), Mason (26105), Monroe (26115), Muskegon (26121), Newaygo (26123), Oceana (26127), Ottawa (26139)*, Van Buren (26159), Wayne (26163)
MN Anoka (27003), Carver (27019)*, Chisago (27025)*, Dakota (27037)*, Hennepin (27053)*, Ramsey (27123)*, Scott (27139)*, Sherburne (27141)*, Washington (27163)*, Wright (27171)*
MT Lake (30047)*, Missoula (30063), Ravalli (30081)
NE Antelope (31003), Boone (31011), Brown (31017), Dodge (31053), Holt (31089), Howard (31093), Rock (31149)
NH Rockingham (33015)*
NJ Atlantic (34001)*, Bergen (34003)*, Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Cape May (34009), Essex (34013)*, Gloucester (34015)*, Hudson (34017)*, Passaic (34031)*, Salem (34033)*, Sussex (34037)*
NY Orange (36071), Putnam (36079), Suffolk (36103)
OR Benton (41003), Columbia (41009)*, Harney (41025)*, Hood River (41027)*, Klamath (41035), Linn (41043)*, Marion (41047)*, Multnomah (41051)*
PA Adams (42001)*, Bedford (42009), Berks (42011), Bucks (42017), Chester (42029), Dauphin (42043), Delaware (42045), Lancaster (42071), Montgomery (42091), Montour (42093), Northumberland (42097), Union (42119), York (42133)
RI Kent (44003), Providence (44007)*, Washington (44009)
WA Benton (53005), Chelan (53007), Franklin (53021), Garfield (53023)*, Grant (53025), Klickitat (53039), Skamania (53059)*, Spokane (53063), Whatcom (53073)*, Whitman (53075)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+*, Concord (01070005)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Charles (01090001)+*, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+*, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Raystown (02050303)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Monocacy (02070009)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+*, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Manistee (04060103)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+
07 Crow (07010204)+*, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+*, Maquoketa (07060006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Skunk (07080107)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+*
10 Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Lower North Loup (10210007)+, Loup (10210009)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+
15 Willcox Playa (15050201)+*, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+
17 Bitterroot (17010205)+, Lower Flathead (17010212)+*, Chief Joseph (17020005)+, Lake Chelan (17020009)+*, Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)+*, Palouse (17060108)+, Rock (17060109)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+*, Klickitat (17070106)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+*, Upper Willamette (17090003)+, Middle Willamette (17090007)+*, Lower Willamette (17090012)+*, Strait of Georgia (17110002)+*, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+*
18 Lost (18010204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Toothcup is a small, glabrous annual with simple or branched, erect to prostrate stems that are up to 10 cm high. The opposite, narrowly lance-shaped leaves have short petioles and are 15-30 mm long. The tiny, solitary flowers are sessile in the axils of upper leaves. The cup-shaped, shallowly 4-lobed calyx is 1-3 mm long in flower but up to 4 mm long in fruit. The 4 stamens are shorter than the 1 mm long, white petals. The fruit is a globose capsule that is ca. 3 mm across.
Technical Description: From CNHP Wetland Guide 2012: Growth Habit: annual, fibrous-rooted, glabrous herb.
Stems: erect or nearly prostrate, sometimes creeping at base with more erect branches, up to 6 dm tall.
Leaves: opposite, broadly linear to narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, tapering to slender base, (0.5)1-3 cm long and 2-5(10) mm wide.
Flowers: mostly (3) 4 (6) -merous, solitary in axils, sessile, subtended by a pair of bracteoles; floral tube 2-3 mm long, and thick-columnar, becoming thickly urceolate (urn-shaped) at maturity; sepals alternating with triangular appendages of nearly the same size; petals white or pink, about 1 mm long, caducous (falling off early).
Fruit: 3- 0r 4-valved capsule, equaling or a little shorter than the floral tube..


Diagnostic Characteristics: Ammania coccinea has sessile, clasping leaf bases. Gratiola have short-stalked flowers and separate sepals. A hand lens will be necessary to discern the flower characters.

From CNHP Wetland Guide 2012: Main Characteristics:
·Annual herb with 4 petals, white or pink
·Flowers solitary in axils
·Leaves opposite and arranged at right angles to leaf pair above and below (decussate)

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC. Available: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm

  • Baskin, C.C., J.M. Baskin, E.W. Chester. 2002. Effects of flooding and temperature on dormancy break in seeds of the summer annual mudflat species Ammannia coccinea and Rotala ramosior (Lythraceae). Wetlands 22(4): 661-668.

  • Baskin, Carol C., Jerry M. Baskin and Edward W. Chester. 2002. Effects of flooding and temperature on dormancy break in seeds of the summer annual mudflat species Ammannia coccinea and Rotala ramosior (Lythraceae). Wetlands 22 (4): 661-668.

  • Beal, E. O. 1977. A Manual of Marsh and Aquatic Vascular Plants of North Carolina with Habitat Data. North Carolina Exp. Stn. Tech. Rep. No. 247. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

  • Brownell, V. R., Blaney, C. S., and P. M. Catling. 1996. Recent discoveries of southern vascular plants at their northern limits in the Granite Barrens area of Lennox and Addington County, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110(2): 255-259.

  • Brownell, V.R. and G.W. Douglas. [2004]. National Recovery Strategy for Toothcup, Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW). Ottawa, ON. 39 pp. In press.

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 473 pp.

  • Cook, C. D. K. 1979. A revision of the genus ROTALA (Lythraceae). Boissiera 29:1-?.

  • Cook, C. D. K. 1979. A revision of the genus ROTALA (Lythraceae). Boissiera 29:1-?.

  • Douglas, G. W., and M. J. Oldham. 1999. COSEWIC status report on the toothcup Rotala ramosior in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-19 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W. 1995d. Status Report on the Toothcup (Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne in von Matius). Conserv. Data Cent., B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W. and M.J. Oldham. 1998. Status Report on the Toothcup (Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne in von Martius) in Canada. COSEWIC. 19 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar. eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 3, Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Onagraceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 423pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., and M.J. Oldham. 1998. Status Report on the Toothcup (ROTALA RAMOSIOR (L.) Koehne in von Martius) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 21 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., and M.J. Oldham. 1999. Status Report on Toothcup, Rotala ramosior, in Canada. Unpubl. rep. submitted to the Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can. Ottawa. 25pp.

  • Douglas, George W. 1999. Status of toothcup in British Columbia. Wildlife Bulletin no. B-94. BC Minist. of Environ. Lands and Parks and Resources Inventory Branch, Victoria, BC. Available

  • Douglas, George W., Michael J. Oldham and J.L. Penny. [2008]. Conservation evaluation of Toothcup, Rotala ramosior (Lythraceae), an endangered vascular plant in Canada. Can. Field Nat. In press.

  • Fairbarns, M. 2003b. E-Literature Search on Rotala ramosior. B.C. Minist. Sustainable Resour. Manage.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fite-Wassilak, A., A. Kane, J. Kelley, and A. Leuck. 2001. Germination of the Rare Wetland Species Rotala ramosior (Lythraceae). Unpublished document. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (contact Dr. Johanna Schmitt, Box G, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.


  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • HEAR. 2002. Information page on Rotala ramosior (L.) Kuhne. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR). Online. Available: http://www.hear.org/gcw/index.html (Accessed March, 2005).

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Line, J. and M.J. Oldham. 1999. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form - Toothcup (Rotala ramosior). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontatrio Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp + appendices.

  • Mattrick, C. 2001. New England Plant Conservation Program Conservation and Research Plan: Rotala ramosior (L). Koehne. New England Wildflower Soc. 27 pp.

  • National Toothcup Recovery Team. 2008. Recovery strategy for the toothcup (Rotala ramosior) in British Columbia and Ontario. Prepared for the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC, and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON. 22 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Sears, C., B. Klinkenberg and R. Klinkenberg. 2005. COSEWIC Status Report on Alkali Aster (Symphyotrichum frondosum) in Canada. Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can., Ottawa. [Draft].

  • Sutherland DA. 1987. The Vascular Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. Pages 1-52 in The Natural Areas Inventory of the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk - Volume II: Annotated Checklists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe, Ontario.

  • Veit, L. 2001. Report on Toothcup (Rotala ramosior). Field visit Aug. 24, 27 and Sept. 7, 2000.. MNR, Peterborough District.. 3 + appendices.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 2005. Rotala ramosior field guide page. Available: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/pdf/rotram.pdf. (Accessed May 2005).

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Weldy, Troy W. and David Werier. 2005. New York Flora Atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research. University of South Florida]. New York Flora Association, Albany, NY. Available on the web at (http://atlas.nyflora.org/).

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