Rossiana montana - Denning, 1953
Northern Rocky Mountains Refugium Caddisfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rossiana montana Denning, 1953 (TSN 605864)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.120653
Element Code: IITRIF9010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Caddisflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Trichoptera Rossianidae Rossiana
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N02CLE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rossiana montana
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Sep2013
Global Status Last Changed: 26Sep2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: At least 12 extant occurrences, though surveys are needed to identify and obtain data on populations in British Columbia and Washington. Rossiana montana has been described as a rare species due to habitat specificity and is never abundant when collected (Wiggins 1996). It has no USFWS status at the present time, although it is currently a US Forest Service Species of Concern (SOC).
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3 (12Jan2006)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NU (23May2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Montana (S2), Washington (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (SU)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Rangewide, Rossiana montana is known from western Montana, Washington and British Columbia (Potter 1975, Wiggins 1996). In Montana, this species has been reported from streams in Missoula, Mineral and Sanders counties. In British Columbia, it is only known from Allison Pass in Manning Provincial Park (Nimmo and Scudder 1978). Rossiana montana has not been reported in Idaho yet, but it is likely to be found in the NRMR area (Clearwater National Forest) near the Montana border (Montana Field Guide 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: One occurrence in British Columbia. Montana Natural Heritage database has 10 occurrence records (K. Coleman, pers. comm., 23 Sept. 2013) and Stagliano and Maxell (2010) map 8 sites. Wiggins (1996) lists Washington, but number of occurrences have not been determined.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Specific threats to Montana populations of R. montana would include mismanagement of forested riparian areas, including sediment and temperature increases associated with road building and timber harvests not following best management practices (BMPs). In general, cold-stenothermic (cold-water specialists) invertebrate populations can be affected by slight changes to the thermal characteristics of their aquatic habitats, such as alteration of flow patterns, increased sunlight exposure, streambed substrate and water quality. Alteration and degradation of riparian and aquatic habitat is the primary concern for these populations (Stagliano et al., 2007).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Rangewide, Rossiana montana is known from western Montana, Washington and British Columbia (Potter 1975, Wiggins 1996). In Montana, this species has been reported from streams in Missoula, Mineral and Sanders counties. In British Columbia, it is only known from Allison Pass in Manning Provincial Park (Nimmo and Scudder 1978). Rossiana montana has not been reported in Idaho yet, but it is likely to be found in the NRMR area (Clearwater National Forest) near the Montana border (Montana Field Guide 2013).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MT, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Lake (30047), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Sanders (30089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, Flathead Lake (17010208)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: It is associated with high gradient, first or second order, perennially flowing streams and springs especially in gravel under mossy areas (Wiggins, 1996).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Primary management needs include conducting surveys to determine distribution and abundance of known populations, as well as locating additional populations, protecting key watersheds, and preserving, maintaining, and restoring habitats supporting existing populations.

Stagliano and Maxell (2010) recommend protecting critical watershed habitats for macroinvertebrates from future road development and habitat degradation by following riparian conservation areas (RCA) management practices. According to the Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment (2001), the intent of management direction for RCA's is to (1) preserve, enhance, and restore habitat for riparian- and aquatic-dependent species, (2) ensure that water quality is maintained or restored, (3) enhance habitat conservation for species associated with the transition zone between upslope and riparian areas, and (4) provide connectivity within the watershed.

Comprehensive information and management plans exist for most aquatic vertebrate species of conservation concern, but the same information is lacking for aquatic invertebrate species of concern. Identifying the distribution and habitat requirements of these aquatic invertebrate species is critical to their management and protection because they may inhabit specialized niches not included in the protection plans of vertebrates (Stagliano and Maxell 2010).

Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Caddisflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including larvae or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. Sight records and photographs, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences as identification of caddisflies often requires close examination of the genitalia of adult males. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Wiggins and Mackay (1978) found caddisfly distributions separated by trophic category as related to stream resource availability in Eastern streams; and to a lesser degree in Western streams. Shredders predominated in upstream habitats in relation to grazers and collectors, but the proportion of shredders became smaller downstream. Groups have also been separated ecologically into lotic-erosional (running water riffles), lotic-depositional (running water pools and margins), lentic-limnetic (standing water), lentic-littoral (standing water, shallow shore areas), lentic-profundal (standing water, basin), and beach zone (Wallace and Anderson, 1996). For the purpose of occurrence separation, however, the same genera or species often occur across habitats making such habitat classifications impractical.

Regardless of habitat, caddisfly adults tend to remain somewhat near the emergence site (LaFontaine, 1981; Collier and Smith, 1998) where oviposition occurs. Dispersal away from emergence sites tends to be negatively correlated with density of vegetation along the dispersal corridor; caddisflies tend to disperse shorter distances in dense forest compared with more open vegetation (Collier and Smith, 1998). Although dispersal flights are common especially from temporary habitats, such flights are relatively short and only occur immediately following emergence (unlike some Coleoptera and Hemiptera that also disperse additionally in autumn to overwinter) (Cummins and Merritt, 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) estimated that 85% of all adult Hydropsychidae were collected within 100 m of the water's edge with most of the remainder collected within 250 m, although significant, though small, numbers were collected up to 1845 m inland (esp. for Hexagenia). It is worth noting that in some instances, large river caddisflies may disperse a distance greater than five km from the river, suggesting long distance dispersal (Huryn and Harris, 2000; Kovats et al., 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) suggested this longer distance dispersal is likely accidental. Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have therefore been set at five km.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Sep2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Sears, N. (2013); Cordeiro, J. (2008); Cordeiro, J. and Schweitzer, D. (2005)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Feb2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.

  • Montana Natural Heritage Program (MNHP) and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP). Northern Rocky Mountains Refugium Caddisfly - Rossiana montana. Montana Field Guide. Online. Available: http://FieldGuide.mt.gov/detail_IITRIF9010.aspx (accessed September 20, 2013).

  • Newell, R.L. and D.S. Potter. 1973. Distribution of some Montana caddisflies. Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences 33: 12-21.

  • Nimmo, A.P. and G.G.E. Scudder. 1978. An annotated checklist of the Trichoptera (Insecta) of British Columbia. Syesis 11: 117-134.

  • Scudder, G.G.E. 1996. Terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates of British Columbia: priorities for inventory and descriptive research. Research Branch British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, and Wildlife Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Victoria, British Columbia, Working Paper 09/1996.206 pp.

  • Stagliano, D.M., G.M. Stephens, and W.R. Bosworth. 2007. Aquatic invertebrate species of concern on USFS Northern Region lands. Report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Missoula, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana and Idaho Conservation Data Center, Boise, Idaho. Agreement number 05-CS-11015600-036. 95 pp. + app.

  • Stagliano, D.M., and B.A. Maxell. 2010. Aquatic Invertebrate Species of Concern: Updated Distributions, Vital Watersheds and Predicted Sites within USFS Northern Region Lands. Report to USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 30 pp. plus appendices.

  • USDA Forest Service. 2001. Record of decision, Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment Environmental Impact Statement. Pacific Southwest Region. Online. Available: http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r5/landmanagement/planning/?cid=STELPRDB5349922

  • Wiggins, G.B. 1996. Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). Second edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 457 pp.

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