Rorippa calycina - (Engelm.) Rydb.
Persistent-sepal Yellowcress
Other Common Names: persistent sepal yellowcress
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rorippa calycina (Engelm.) Rydb. (TSN 22997)
French Common Names: rorippe Ó sÚpales persistants
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143570
Element Code: PDBRA27040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Rorippa
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rorippa calycina
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct; as treated here, following Kartesz (1994), excludes Rorippa columbiae, by some included here as var. columbiae).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Sep1997
Global Status Last Changed: 06Feb1990
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known originally from only a few sites in Montana and Wyoming, and adjacent western Nebraska and North Dakota; only known to be extant and persisting in Wyoming where in recent decades (especially since 1980) this species may have become more abundant, due to its ability to colonize banks of artificial reservoirs in this region. Altogether, a few dozen occurrences are now known (1997). Reports under this name from California, Oregon, and Washington are instead a different species, Rorippa columbiae.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (08Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Idaho (SNR), Montana (S1), Nebraska (S1), North Dakota (SH), Wyoming (S3)
Canada British Columbia (S1S2), Northwest Territories (SNR)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Rorippa calycina is a regional endemic only known to be extant from Wyoming, plus historic records on the Yellowstone River in Montana and downstream in North Dakota. There is also a collection record of it on the Arctic coast of Canada's Northwest Territories that is apt to represent accidental waterfowl dispersal.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: More than 20 sites known in Wyoming, most located since 1980; the species has been colonizing banks of artificial reservoirs. Also known from 1 historic record in North Dakota, 3 historic records in Montana and 2 recent records that may be extirpated, plus one accidental introduction in NWT.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: A key question is the interchangeability of reservoir habitat for free-flowing riparian habitat. The accompanying change in water levels may threaten the taxon if there is not a seedbank or unaffected seed source; or may open up additional habitat. Tamarisk competition and shoreline developments are potential threats.

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Possibly increasing due to ability to colonize shores of artificial reservoirs; Rollins (1993) suggests that "it appears that the provision of suitable habitats by the construction of reservoirs has provided for an unusual increase in the number of populations of this species."

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Rorippa calycina is a regional endemic only known to be extant from Wyoming, plus historic records on the Yellowstone River in Montana and downstream in North Dakota. There is also a collection record of it on the Arctic coast of Canada's Northwest Territories that is apt to represent accidental waterfowl dispersal.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT, ND, NE, WY
Canada BC, NT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Big Horn (30003)*, Custer (30017)*, McCone (30055)*, Rosebud (30087)*, Treasure (30103)*, Yellowstone (30111)*
ND McKenzie (38053)*, Williams (38105)*
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Park (56029), Sweetwater (56037), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+*, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+*, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+*, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+*, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+*, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+
14 Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial plant (a watercress relative) spreading from underground roots with petals 2-4 mm long and fruits 1-2 times as long as wide, pubescent with simple hairs that are broadened toward base. Flowers June-August.
General Description: Persistent-sepal Yellow-cress is a rhizomatous perennial with spreading or lax stems that are 1-4 dm long. The alternate leaves are 3-7 cm long and have coarsely toothed to shallowly lobed margins. Foliage is roughened or sparsely covered with stiff hairs. Several stalked flowers are borne on the ends of terminal branches that arise from the axils of upper leaves, forming an open inflorescence. Each flower has 4 separate sepals, 4 separate, light yellow petals that are ca. 4 mm long, and 4 long and 2 short stamens. The sepals tend to remain in place until the fruit is nearly mature. The ascending egg-shaped capsules, or siliques, are 2-5 mm long and soft-hairy.
Technical Description: Decumbent to prostrate, much-branched perennial from rhizomes, 1-4 dm (3.9-15.75 in.) tall, moderately to densely hirsute with slender, elongate trichomes. Leaves sessile, blades oblong to oblanceolate in outline, 2.5-5 cm (0.1-1.97 in.) long, 0.5-1 cm (0.2-0.4 in.) wide, hirsute on both surfaces, especially at the midrib, acute to obtuse, shallowly to deeply sinuate, auriculate, and partly clasping at the base. Racemes are terminal and axillary, all about the same age or the lowest ones with the oldest siliques. Sepals are yellowish-green, 2.1-3.1 mm (.08-.12 in.) long, persistent with fruit. Petals are bright yellow 2.5-3.7 mm (0.1-.15 in.), sometimes 2 mm (.08 in.) long, to 1 mm (.04 in.) longer than the sepals. Silques are globose to subglobose, 2.3-3.4 mm (.09-.13 in.) long, 1.2-2.3 mm (.05-.09 in.) wide, ca. 1.3-2X longer than wide, densely strigose on the valves; pedicels strongly recurved, sometimes giving the raceme a 1-sided appearance, 3.5-6.5 mm (.14-.26 in.) long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: The combination of having a perennial rhizomatous habit, yellow flowers, and egg-shaped siliques separate this species from all other members of the genus. The persistent sepals are also diagnostic.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Produces large numbers of seeds and spreads by rhizomes (Fertig and Welp 1998).
Habitat Comments: Seasonally flooded sandy shores and mudflats of lakes, streams, and riverbanks and margins of reservoirs, ponds, and lakes (FNA 2010).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Sep1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Marriott, H. (1987), rev. L. Morse (1997), rev. B. Heidel (1999). rev. B. Heidel (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KAJ

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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