Rhynchospora decurrens - Chapman
Swamp-forest Beakrush
Other English Common Names: Swamp Forest Beaksedge
Other Common Names: swampforest beaksedge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhynchospora decurrens Chapman (TSN 40165)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.157530
Element Code: PMCYP0N0N0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Rhynchospora
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rhynchospora decurrens
Taxonomic Comments: This species is closely related to and resembles vegetatively Rhynchospora mixta, from which it is distinguished by bristles equaling (vs. shorter than) the tubercle plus other achenial characters (Gale, 1944).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Dec1997
Global Status Last Changed: 18Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Widespread but infrequently reported - probably underrepresented in herbaria due to difficulty of identification. Current Heritage information indicates that the species is extant in several areas.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Florida (S3S4), Georgia (S2?), Louisiana (S1), Mississippi (S1), North Carolina (S1S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Along the coastal plain of North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida (12 counties).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Florida, 16 recorded occurrences (need numbers from rest of the range).

Population Size Comments: Apparently has low numbers of plants (in order of some hundreds) at even its best sites.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Agricultural and commercial/urban development in the surrounding areas can adversely affect the hydrology of the habitat in which this plant occurs. Logging or plantation establishment is a threat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Along the coastal plain of North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida (12 counties).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Baker (13007), Calhoun (13037)*, Charlton (13049), Dougherty (13095), Glynn (13127)*, Long (13183), Mcintosh (13191)*, Thomas (13275)*, Tift (13277), Wayne (13305)*
LA St. Tammany (22103)
MS Pearl River (28109)*
NC Brunswick (37019), Columbus (37047), Onslow (37133), Pender (37141)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Ogeechee Coastal (03060204)+*, Altamaha (03070106)+, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+*, St. Marys (03070204)+, Little (03110204)+, Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+*, Ichawaynochaway (03130009)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+*
08 Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Clump-forming sedge with soft, long, flat leaves.
Technical Description: Cespitose. Stems obtusely trigonous, smooth, slender, leafy, 0.5-1.2 m tall, very flexuous above, nearly terete; leaf blades lax, elongate, flat, smooth and soft, 2-3 mm wide with 3-angled setaceous tips. Inflorescences of a terminal and 3-5 (-7) lateral, loose, lax, decompound cymes, the spikelets borne singly or in small glomerules on ascending capillary stalks. Spikelets ovate to broadly fusiform, 3 mm long, 3-4 flowered, 2-3 fruited, scattered and somewhat congested on capillary pedicels; scales mucronulate or muticous, chestnut brown, caducous. Achenes elliptic or elliptic obovate, slightly biconvex, bright chestnut, 0.9 mm wide, 1.3 mm long, the surface finely transversely ridged-reticulate; bristles 6, slender, easily detached, equalling the achene body; tubercle broadly deltoid. (Small 1933, Gale 1944, Godfrey and Wooten 1981)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Rhynchospora decurrens is most closely related to R. mixta Britt. This is at once apparent in the habit which is indistinguishable from that of R. mixta, for the plant has the same lax and drooping aspect with the typical flat soft leaves, and the loose cymes with their spreading or drooping filiform branchlets. The distinction between the two species depends upon achenial characters. The six bristles surrounding the customarily pale chestnut achene of R. mixta exceed the deltoid-attenuate tubercle which is 0.4 (rarely)-0.9 mm high and marginally setose. The achene of R. decurrens, however, while similar to that of R. mixta in pitting and general outline, is a brilliant chestnut, surrounded by six bristles in height not equalling the tubercle, which is short (not exceeding 3 mm long), broadly deltoid, and without a trace of marginal setae. (Gale 1944)
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Sexual reproduction occurs spring through fall (Wunderlin 1982). Dispersal by birds recorded for genus; many Rhynchospora species have achenes with prominent long beak and barbed bristles which may adhere to fur or feathers, although both beak and bristles are rather short in this species.
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Swamp forests and marshy shores (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). Floodplains, cypress swamps (Clewell 1985).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Feb1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Amoroso, J.L.; A. Wildman, rankspecs by A. Weakley (1994); rev. L. Morse (1996).
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): A. WILDMAN, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • BRIDGES, E.L. AND G.A. REESE. 1996. UPPER LAKES BASIN WATERSHED NATURAL RESOURCES INVENTORY-A PROJECT OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY OF SAVE OUR RIVERS LANDS. FAIRCHILD TROPICAL GARDEN, MIAMI, FL.

  • Bryson, Charles T. 2002. Preliminary abundance and range estimates for Cyperaceae species of Mississippi. Handwritten notes provided to Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 100 pp.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • GALE, S. 1944. RHYNCHOSPORA, SECTION EURHYNCHOSPORA, IN CANADA, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE WEST INDIES. CONTRIB. FROM THE GRAY HERB.

  • GODFREY, R.K. & J. WOOTEN. 1979. AQUATIC & WETLAND PLANTS OF SOUTHEASTERN U.S., MONOCOTYLEDONS. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PRESS, ATHENS. 712 PP.

  • Gale, S. 1944. Rhynchospora, section Eurhynchospora, in Canada, the United States and the West Indies. Rhodora 46:89-134; 159-197; 207-249; 255-278.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 712 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Leonard, Steve. 1999. State conservation ranking recommendations for species included in the paper:Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908.

  • Pijl, L. van der. 1982. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 214 pp.

  • Proctor, M., and P. Yeo. 1973. The pollination of flowers. William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, London. 418 pp.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A. E. 1986. Fundamentals of plant systematics Harper & Row, New York.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Richards, A.J. 1986. Plant breeding systems. George Allen & Unwin, London. 529 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • Sorrie, B.A. 1999. Species ranking for noteworthy plants of Mississippi (A99SOR01MSUS). E-mail of Sept. 1, 1999 to MSHP.

  • Sorrie, B.A., and S.W. Leonard. 1999. Noteworthy records of Mississippi vascular plants. Sida 18(3)889-908. Address: BRUCE SORRIE, 3076 NIAGARA-CARTHAGE ROAD, WHISPERING PINES, NC 28327

  • Sorrie, Bruce A. 2000. Plant EORs: a subreport of R97MOO01MSUS. Edit 9 (175 records).

  • Stebbins, G.L. 1974. Flowering plants: evolution above the species level. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 399 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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