Rhizophora mangle - L.
Red Mangrove
Other Common Names: red mangrove
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhizophora mangle L. (TSN 27791)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137428
Element Code: PDRHI03010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rhizophorales Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rhizophora mangle
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Apr1994
Global Status Last Changed: 29Aug1985
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Found on shores of central and southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and throughout West Indies to Trinidad and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. Also on both coasts of continental tropical America from central Mexico south to Ecuador, northwestern Peru and to Brazil (Little and Wadsworth 1964). Found in Melanesia, Polynesia, Galapagos Islands (Chudnoff 1993), Cape Verde Islands, Hawaii (Tree Talk 1994) and along the west coast of Africa (Record and Mell 1924). In parts of northern South America there are very extensive mangrove swamps at the mouths of all the great rivers and fringing the coast in certain places. The accessible stands in Venezuela have been seriously depleted and the forests around Lake Maracaibo now produce only small-sized poles. The forests of Porto Cabello have been practically destroyed and are now areas of low scrubby growth. On the deeper soils, muddy banks, and islands of the Orinoco delta, however, there are pure stands of red mangrove still in virgin condition (Record and Mell 1924).
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (S3S4), Hawaii (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Found on shores of central and southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and throughout West Indies to Trinidad and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. Also on both coasts of continental tropical America from central Mexico south to Ecuador, northwestern Peru and to Brazil (Little and Wadsworth 1964). Found in Melanesia, Polynesia, Galapagos Islands (Chudnoff 1993), Cape Verde Islands, Hawaii (Tree Talk 1994) and along the west coast of Africa (Record and Mell 1924).

Population Size Comments: In parts of northern South America there are very extensive mangrove swamps The accessible stands in Venezuela have been seriously depleted and the forests around Lake Maracaibo now produce only small-sized poles. The forests of Porto Cabello have been practically destroyed and are now areas of low scrubby growth. On muddy, deeper soils of banks and islands of the Orinoco delta, however, there are pure stands of red mangrove still in virgin condition (Record and Mell 1924).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Has been heavily exploited for timber (Record and Mell 1924).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Found on shores of central and southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and throughout West Indies to Trinidad and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. Also on both coasts of continental tropical America from central Mexico south to Ecuador, northwestern Peru and to Brazil (Little and Wadsworth 1964). Found in Melanesia, Polynesia, Galapagos Islands (Chudnoff 1993), Cape Verde Islands, Hawaii (Tree Talk 1994) and along the west coast of Africa (Record and Mell 1924).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, HIexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Commonly a small evergreen tree 15-25 feet or more in height (in (Record) 1924 known to reach 100 ft. with diameters up to 3 ft.), with an erect trunk 8 inches or more in diameter.
Reproduction Comments: The seed, while still attached to the tree, develops a radicle which, when detached, falls like a dart and sticks upright in the mud ready to put forth leaves and roots immediately; some are carried away by tides and can thus populate newly formed mudbars and islands.
Habitat Comments: Occurs in mangrove swamps at the mouths of large estuarine rivers and fringing ocean coast in certain places (Record and Mell 1924).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Building materials/timber, Fuelwood
Economic Comments: The timber is (has been) employed for rafters, scantling, beams, joists, braces, knees and ribs of boats, and miscellaneous construction, and also for posts, piling, railway ties, charcoal and fuel. The chief use is (has been) for tannin extracted from the bark which is also used for dyeing and medicine (Record and Mell 1924). The tree serves as a timber species in Costa Rica (Alvarez 1991). Other general timber applications of this species are cooperage, railroad crossties, rafters, fencing, tannery, charcoal (Santos 1987), turnery, life boats and mining timbers (Tree Talk 1994).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Apr1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Blythe, K. (TNC-LASP)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JASTER, T. (TNC-LASP)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alvarez, Luis and Jorge Poveda. 1991. Arboles Maderables Nativos de Costa Rica. Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica.

  • Chudnoff, Martin. 1993. Tropical Timbers of the World. Handbook number 607. USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E., Jr. & Wadsworth, F. 1964. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 548 págs.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Record, S. & Mell, C. 1924. Timbers of Tropical America. New Haven: Yale University Press, U.S.A. 610 págs.

  • Santos, Eurico. 1987. Nossas Madeiras. Chapter IV. Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Brazil.

  • Woods of the World Compact (IBM Windows), [CD-ROM]. (1994). Available: Tree Talk.

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