Rhinichthys obtusus - Agassiz, 1854
Western Blacknose Dace
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhinichthys obtusus Agassiz, 1854 (TSN 689949)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.790464
Element Code: AFCJB37160
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Rhinichthys
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B04NEL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rhinichthys obtusus
Taxonomic Comments: On advice of R. E. Jenkins, Nelson et al. (2004) split the blacknose dace into two species, R. atratulus (eastern blacknose dace, primarily in Atlantic Slope drainages) and R. obtusus (western blacknose dace, remainder of range).

Not all ichthyologists accept this split but prefer to maintain atratulus and obtusus as conspecific (e.g., Page and Burr 2011). Based on morphological data for populations in Canada, Fraser et al. (2005) could not distinguish the western and eastern species. In contrast, Smith (2007) readily distinguished the two in West Virginia, based on morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 09Jun2009
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (09Jun2009)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S2), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (S1), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Virginia (SNR), West Virginia (SNR), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (25Feb2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses the upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Great Lakes drainages, from south-central Canada to northern Alabama and Georgia and east to eastern Lake Erie.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Range encompasses the upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Great Lakes drainages, from south-central Canada to northern Alabama and Georgia and east to eastern Lake Erie.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, PA, SC, SD, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada MB, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Marshall (20117), Nemaha (20131)
MS Tishomingo (28141)
NE Antelope (31003), Boyd (31015), Brown (31017), Cedar (31027), Cherry (31031), Douglas (31055)*, Garden (31069)*, Holt (31089), Keith (31101)*, Keya Paha (31103), Knox (31107), Logan (31113)*, Pawnee (31133), Pierce (31139)*, Rock (31149), Sheridan (31161)
SC Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073)*, Richland (45079)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Broad (03050106)+*, Saluda (03050109)+, Congaree (03050110)+*, Seneca (03060101)+, Tugaloo (03060102)+, Conasauga (03150101), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111)*
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007)*, Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Beaver (05030104), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006), Upper New (05050001), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003)*, Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)*, Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Upper Wabash (05120101), Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Collins (05130107), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Crow Wing (07010106), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Redwood (07020006), Blue Earth (07020009), Le Sueur (07020011), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), South Skunk (07080105)*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Lower Illinois (07130011)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Obion (08010202)
09 Otter Tail (09020103), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Goose (09020109), Maple (09020205), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Clearwater (09020305), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Park (09020310), Two Rivers (09020312), Pembina (09020313), Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Rainy Lake (09030003), Upper Rainy (09030004)
10 Ponca (10150001)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Keya Paha (10150006)+, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+, Upper James (10160003), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Lower North Platte (10180014)+*, Lower Platte (10200202), South Loup (10210004)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+*, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Pool
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes rocky runs and pools of headwaters, creeks, and small rivers (Page and Burr 2011).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Jun2009
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Aug2012

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Fraser, B. A., N. E. Mandrak, and R. L. McLaughlin. 2005. Lack of morphological differentiation in eastern (Rhinichthys atratulus) and western (Rhinichthys obtusus) blacknose dace in Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83(11):1502-1509.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • Huffaker, Steve. 1971. Upper West Fork of the Whitewater River Stream Survey Report; Wayne, Randolph, Rush, Henry, Fayette Counties. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 28 pp.

  • Kraczkowski, M. L. and B. Chernoff.  2014. Molecular phylogenetics of the eastern and western blacknose dace, Rhinichthys atratulus and R. obtusus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2014(2): 325-338.

  • Matthews, W.J., R.E. Jenkins, J.T. Styron, Jr. 1982a; Systematics of two forms of blacknose dace, Rhynicthys atratulus, (Pisces:Cyprinidae) in a zone of syntopy, with a review of the species group. Copeia 902-920.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, G. D. 2007. Morphological and molecular analyses of the blacknose dace species complex (genus Rhinichthys) in a large zone of contact in West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia.

  • Suttkus, R., and M. Mettee. 2001. Analysis of four species of Notropis included in the subgenus of Pteronotropis Fowler, with comments on relationships, origin, and dispersion. Geological Survey of Alabama Bulletin No. 170. 50 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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