Rhinichthys cataractae - (Valenciennes, 1842)
Longnose Dace
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhinichthys cataractae (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1842) (TSN 163384)
French Common Names: naseux des rapides
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101847
Element Code: AFCJB37020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 132

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Rhinichthys
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rhinichthys cataractae
Taxonomic Comments: Three subspecies (cataractae, dulcis, and smithi) have been described; other populations probably deserve taxonomic recognition (Page and Burr 1991). Hybridizes with Rhinichthyes osculus, Gila pandora, and Campostoma anomalum (Sublette et al. 1990).
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (S4), Georgia (S3S4), Idaho (S4), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S3), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S2), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S4), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S2), Utah (S3), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S4), Washington (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S4), Manitoba (S5), Northwest Territories (S4S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:X,E
Comments on COSEWIC: Nooksack Dace is Endangered, Banff Longnose Dace is Extinct.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Widest range of any North American minnow; generally distributed north of 40 degrees north latitude from coast to coast; north to the Arctic Circle in the Mackenzie River drainage; south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia, south through the Rocky Mountains into the Rio Grande drainage of Texas and northern Mexico, and south along the Atlantic coast to Virginia; common in northern U.S., fairly common in west but absent from Alaska and from western drainages south of the Columbia and Coos river drainages (Page and Burr 1991). Subspecies cataractae: east of the Continental Divide. Subspecies dulcis: Pacific basin. Subspecies SMITHI: formerly in hot springs in Banff National Park, Alberta.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: See Lanteigne (1988) for discussion of extinction of subspecies smithi due to introgressive hybridization with subspecies cataractae (marsh created by Cave and Basin Hotsprings, 1.7 km SW Banff, Alberta, Canada); initial decline of smithi is attributed to introductions of non-native fishes, periodic cessation of spring flow related to public use of hot springs, and periodic spillage of sewage from the public facilities (Miller et al. 1989).

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: Widest range of any North American minnow; generally distributed north of 40 degrees north latitude from coast to coast; north to the Arctic Circle in the Mackenzie River drainage; south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia, south through the Rocky Mountains into the Rio Grande drainage of Texas and northern Mexico, and south along the Atlantic coast to Virginia; common in northern U.S., fairly common in west but absent from Alaska and from western drainages south of the Columbia and Coos river drainages (Page and Burr 1991). Subspecies cataractae: east of the Continental Divide. Subspecies dulcis: Pacific basin. Subspecies SMITHI: formerly in hot springs in Banff National Park, Alberta.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NMexotic, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NT, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Elkhart (18039), St. Joseph (18141)
NV Elko (32007)
OH Ashtabula (39007)*, Cuyahoga (39035)*, Geauga (39055), Jefferson (39081), Lake (39085)
OR Coos (41011)*, Douglas (41019)*
TX Brewster (48043), El Paso (48141)*, Maverick (48323)*, Presidio (48377), Terrell (48443), Val Verde (48465)
UT Davis (49011), Duchesne (49013), Morgan (49029), Piute (49031), Salt Lake (49035), Sevier (49041), Summit (49043), Utah (49049), Wasatch (49051), Weber (49057)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Piscataquis (01020004), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Dead (01030002), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Nashua (01070004), Concord (01070005)*, Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Blackstone (01090003), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Sinnemahoning (02050202), Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Upper Juniata (02050302), Raystown (02050303), Lower Juniata (02050304), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Patuxent (02060006), South Branch Potomac (02070001), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), South Fork Shenandoah (02070005), North Fork Shenandoah (02070006), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Rivanna (02080204), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Appomattox (02080207)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Upper Catawba (03050101), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Waiska (04020203), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Wolf (04030202), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Birch-Willow (04080104), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Black (04150101), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Tygart Valley (05020001), Cheat (05020004), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Mahoning (05030103)*, Beaver (05030104), Upper New (05050001), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Coal (05050009), Upper Levisa (05070202), Twelvepole (05090102)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Crow Wing (07010106), Long Prairie (07010108), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)
09 Upper Red (09020104), Western Wild Rice (09020105), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Lower Red (09020311), Vermilion (09030002), Little Fork (09030005), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Belly (10010001), St. Mary (10010002), Red Rock (10020001), Beaverhead (10020002), Ruby (10020003), Big Hole (10020004), Jefferson (10020005), Boulder (10020006), Madison (10020007), Gallatin (10020008), Upper Missouri (10030101), Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Smith (10030103), Sun (10030104), Belt (10030105), Two Medicine (10030201), Cut Bank (10030202), Marias (10030203), Willow (10030204), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Arrow (10040102), Judith (10040103), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Big Dry (10040105), Little Dry (10040106), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Flatwillow (10040203), Box Elder (10040204), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Milk Headwaters (10050001), Upper Milk (10050002), Wild Horse Lake (10050003), Middle Milk (10050004), Big Sandy (10050005), Sage (10050006), Lodge (10050007), Battle (10050008), Peoples (10050009), Cottonwood (10050010), Whitewater (10050011), Lower Milk (10050012), Frenchman (10050013), Beaver (10050014), Rock (10050015), Porcupine (10050016), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Poplar (10060003), West Fork Poplar (10060004), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Big Muddy (10060006), Brush Lake closed basin (10060007), Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001), Upper Yellowstone (10070002), Shields (10070003), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Stillwater (10070005), Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Pryor (10070008), Upper Wind (10080001), Little Wind (10080002), Popo Agie (10080003), Lower Wind (10080005), Badwater (10080006), Upper Bighorn (10080007), Nowood (10080008), Greybull (10080009), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Dry (10080011), Shoshone (10080014), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Little Bighorn (10080016), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Middle Fork Powder (10090201), Upper Powder (10090202), South Fork Powder (10090203), Salt (10090204), Crazy Woman (10090205), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Big Porcupine (10100002), Rosebud (10100003), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Middle Little Missouri (10110203), Beaver (10110204), Upper Cheyenne (10120103), Lance (10120104), Angostura Reservoir (10120106), Beaver (10120107), Hat (10120108), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Rapid (10120110), Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Redwater (10120203), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Heart (10130203), South Fork Grand (10130302), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Bad (10140102), Medicine (10140104), Upper White (10140201), Middle White (10140202), Lower White (10140204), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Upper North Platte (10180002), Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003), Medicine Bow (10180004), Little Medicine Bow (10180005), Sweetwater (10180006), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Upper Laramie (10180010), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), Clear (10190004), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Crow (10190009), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Sidney Draw (10190017), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), South Loup (10210004), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001), Upper Arkansas (11020002), Fountain (11020003), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Huerfano (11020006), Apishapa (11020007), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Canadian headwaters (11080001), Cimarron (11080002), Upper Canadian (11080003), Mora (11080004)
13 Rio Grande headwaters (13010001), Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002), Conejos (13010005), Upper Rio Grande (13020101), Rio Chama (13020102), Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201), Jemez (13020202), Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203), Rio San Jose (13020207)*, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)*, Caballo (13030101)*, El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+*, Rio Grande-Fort Quitman (13040100)+*, Cibolo-Red Light (13040201)+, Alamito (13040202)+*, Black Hills-Fresno (13040203)+, Big Bend (13040205)+, Reagan-Sanderson (13040208)+, San Francisco (13040209)+, Amistad Reservoir (13040212)+, Pecos headwaters (13060001), Upper Pecos (13060003), Arroyo Del Macho (13060005)*, Rio Hondo (13060008), Rio Felix (13060009)*, Rio Penasco (13060010), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002)+
14 Strawberry (14060004)+, Blanco Canyon (14080103)
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Bear Lake (16010201), Middle Bear (16010202), Little Bear-Logan (16010203), Lower Bear-Malad (16010204), Upper Weber (16020101)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+, Middle Sevier (16030003)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101), Fisher (17010102), Yaak (17010103), Lower Kootenai (17010104), Moyie (17010105), Upper Clark Fork (17010201), Flint-Rock (17010202), Blackfoot (17010203), Middle Clark Fork (17010204), Bitterroot (17010205), Lower Flathead (17010212), Lower Clark Fork (17010213), Pend Oreille Lake (17010214), Priest (17010215), Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301), Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303), St. Joe (17010304), Upper Spokane (17010305), Hangman (17010306), Lower Spokane (17010307), Little Spokane (17010308), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Kettle (17020002), Sanpoil (17020004), Okanogan (17020006), Similkameen (17020007), Methow (17020008), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Wenatchee (17020011), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Naches (17030002), Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003), Snake headwaters (17040101), Gros Ventre (17040102), Greys-Hobock (17040103), Palisades (17040104), Salt (17040105), Idaho Falls (17040201), Upper Henrys (17040202), Lower Henrys (17040203), Willow (17040205), American Falls (17040206), Blackfoot (17040207), Portneuf (17040208), Raft (17040210), Goose (17040211)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214), Big Wood (17040219), Camas (17040220), Little Wood (17040221), Bruneau (17050102), Middle Snake-Succor (17050103), Middle Owyhee (17050107), Jordan (17050108), Lower Owyhee (17050110), North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111), Boise-Mores (17050112), Lower Boise (17050114), Middle Snake-Payette (17050115), Upper Malheur (17050116), Lower Malheur (17050117), Bully (17050118), Willow (17050119), South Fork Payette (17050120), Weiser (17050124), Brownlee Reservoir (17050201), Burnt (17050202), Powder (17050203), Hells Canyon (17060101), Imnaha (17060102), Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103), Upper Grande Ronde (17060104), Wallowa (17060105), Lower Grande Ronde (17060106), Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107), Palouse (17060108), Lower Snake (17060110), Upper Salmon (17060201), Pahsimeroi (17060202), Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203), Lemhi (17060204), South Fork Salmon (17060208), Little Salmon (17060210), Upper Selway (17060301), Lower Selway (17060302), Lochsa (17060303), Middle Fork Clearwater (17060304), South Fork Clearwater (17060305), Clearwater (17060306), Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307), Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308), Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101), Walla Walla (17070102), Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105), Klickitat (17070106), Upper John Day (17070201), North Fork John Day (17070202), Lower John Day (17070204), Upper Deschutes (17070301), Upper Crooked (17070304), Lower Crooked (17070305), Lower Deschutes (17070306), Trout (17070307), Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001), Lewis (17080002), Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003), Upper Cowlitz (17080004), Lower Cowlitz (17080005), Lower Columbia (17080006), Middle Fork Willamette (17090001), Coast Fork Willamette (17090002), Upper Willamette (17090003), Mckenzie (17090004), North Santiam (17090005), South Santiam (17090006), Middle Willamette (17090007), Yamhill (17090008), Molalla-Pudding (17090009), Tualatin (17090010), Clackamas (17090011), Lower Willamette (17090012), Siletz-Yaquina (17100204), Siuslaw (17100206), North Umpqua (17100301), South Umpqua (17100302), Umpqua (17100303), Coos (17100304)+, Coquille (17100305), Lower Rogue (17100310), Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001), Silvies (17120002), Donner Und Blitzen (17120003), Silver (17120004)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Eggs hatch in about 7-10 days at 15.6 C. Sexually mature generally at age II (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973). Maximum lifespan 5 years.
Ecology Comments: Home range averaged less than 14 m of stream length in North Carolina (Hill and Grossman 1987).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Characteristic of clean, swiftly flowing, gravel or bouldery creeks and small to medium rivers; also in inshore waters of lakes over gravel or boulder bottoms. May move offshore to deeper water in summer in warm lakes. Rests under stones when inactive. Spawns probably in riffles over a gravelly bottom, sometimes over or near river chub nests. Also spawns in shallow, pebble-bottomed, wave-swept shorelines of lakes. Fry occupy quiet shallow protected margins of streams, move into swift water within 6 weeks.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly benthic insects, especially Diptera and mayflies (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973); also eats algae and plant material (Sublette et al. 1990). Terrestrial insects and fish egs common in diet of adults from Lake Michigan (see Sublette et al. 1990).
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Study in southern Alberta found that foraging occurs at night (Culp 1989).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

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