Rhinella marina - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Giant Toad
Other English Common Names: Cane Toad, Giant Marine Toad, Marine Toad
Other Common Names: Sapo Cururu
Synonym(s): Bombinator horridus ;Bufo agua ;Bufo brasiliensis ;Bufo horridus ;Bufo humeralis ;Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) ;Rana gigas ;Rana marina
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 773729)
Spanish Common Names: Sapo Común, Sapo Grande
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103751
Element Code: AAABB01100
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
Image 10661

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Rhinella
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bufo marinus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Mar2002
Global Status Last Changed: 10Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Texas (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Southern Texas to South America. Introduced in southern Florida, Puerto Rico (introduced in 1920s), St. Croix, St. Thomas, Hawaii (introduced from Puerto Rico in 1932, now common on all main islands), Jamaica (including Cabarita Island) (introduced from Barbados in 1844, common throughout island in lowlands), Lesser Antilles, Bermuda, Guam (McCoid 1993), Saipan (Wiles and Guerrero 1996), and many other tropical and subtropical localities (Schwartz and Henderson 1988). Elevational range: sea level to about 2900 ft (880 m) (Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size likely exceeds 1,000,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No significant threats.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Has increased through introductions outside the native range. Trend in native range likely is relatively stable, though data are lacking.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Southern Texas to South America. Introduced in southern Florida, Puerto Rico (introduced in 1920s), St. Croix, St. Thomas, Hawaii (introduced from Puerto Rico in 1932, now common on all main islands), Jamaica (including Cabarita Island) (introduced from Barbados in 1844, common throughout island in lowlands), Lesser Antilles, Bermuda, Guam (McCoid 1993), Saipan (Wiles and Guerrero 1996), and many other tropical and subtropical localities (Schwartz and Henderson 1988). Elevational range: sea level to about 2900 ft (880 m) (Schwartz and Henderson 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic, HIexotic, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Usually breeds after rains; capable of breeding any time of year in most areas. Eggs hatch in a few days. Larvae metamorphose in 1-3 months. Sexually mature generally in 1-2 years, possibly in as few as 6 months in some areas.
Ecology Comments: Very mobile. In Puerto Rico, moved as far as 165 m to water hole and back to activity center in same or next night; activity centers up to 862 sq m; 3-17 days between visits to water hole; water hole and damp surfaces used for rehydration (Carpenter and Gillingham 1987).

Dry-season dessication may be a major mortality factor.

Population density in seminatural habitats may be 50-150 adults and late-term juveniles per ha, with about 66% annual population turnover (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Chernin (1979, MS thesis, Univ. Guam) reported densities as high as 225/ha in Guam.

Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Hardwood
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Humid areas with adequate cover, including cane fields, savanna, open forest, well-watered yards and gardens. Can be found by day beneath fallen trees, loose boards, matted coconut leaves, and similar cover (Lynn 1940). Flexible in breeding site (Evans et al. 1996, Copeia 1996:904-912); eggs and larvae develop in slow or still shallow waters of ponds, ditches, temporary pools, reservoirs, canals, and streams. May sometimes breed in slightly brackish water in Hawaii. Larvae are tolerant of high temperatures.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed toads eat mainly various terrestrial invertebrates, especially ants and beetles; sometimes small vertebrates; also may eat inanimate foods such as processed pet food and discarded food scraps (McCoid, 1994, Herpetol. Rev. 25:117-118). Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Mostly nocturnal, though often observed during daylight. Most active during warm, wet weather. Individuals may not be active every night.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 22 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Introduced in many areas in effort to reduce populations of agricultural pests (insects, white sugar cane grub in Puerto Rico).
Management Summary
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Species Impacts: As an introduced species, B. marinus can negatively impact native species and predator assemblages through competition, predation, and toxicity of its eggs or metamorphosed individuals(Punzo and Lindstrom 2001, Phillips et al. 2003). Phillips et al. (2003) concluded that introduced B. marinus potentially threaten populations of approximately 30 percent of terrestrial Australian snake species.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Bufonid Toads

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that toads rarely if ever cross successfully; roads with nonpermeable barriers to toad movement; urbanized areas dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Opportunistic observations of various toad species in lowland habitats indicate regular movements of up to at least several hundred meters from the closest known breeding site (G. Hammerson, pers. obs.). Sweet (1993) recorded movements of up to 1 km in Bufo californicus. In defining critical habitat for B. californicus, USFWS (2000) included breeding streams and upland areas within a 25-m elevational range of each essential stream reach and no more than 1.5 km away from the stream. In northwestern Utah, Thompson (2004) recorded movements of Bufo boreas of up to 5 km across upland habitat between two springs during the summer-fall season. Another toad moved 1.3 km between May of one year and May of the next year; the following June it was back at the original breeding location (Thompson 2004). Most studies of toad movements have not employed radiotelemetry and were not designed to detect long-range movements or dispersal.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the good vagility of toads, their ability to utilize ephemeral or newly created breeding sites, and the consequent likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 27Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Mar2002
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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