Regulus satrapa - Lichtenstein, 1823
Golden-crowned Kinglet
Other English Common Names: golden-crowned kinglet
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein, 1823 (TSN 179865)
French Common Names: roitelet à couronne dorée
Spanish Common Names: Reyezuelo de Oro
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100997
Element Code: ABPBJ05010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Regulidae Regulus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Regulus satrapa
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly in family Muscicapidae; returned to Regulidae by AOU (1997). See Banks and Browning (1995) for brief comments on generic nomenclature.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread and common.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (02Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5N), Alaska (S4S5), Arizona (S3), Arkansas (S5N), California (SNR), Colorado (S4), Connecticut (S2B), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S3S4N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S5), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (S5N), Kentucky (S5N), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S5B,S5N), Maryland (S2B), Massachusetts (S2B,S5N), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB,SNRN), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNRN), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S2B,S3N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4S5N), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S4B,S4N), New Mexico (S4B,S4N), New York (S5B), North Carolina (S3S4B,S5N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S3N), Oregon (S3), Pennsylvania (S3S4B,S5N), Rhode Island (S1B), South Carolina (S4), South Dakota (S4B,S4N), Tennessee (S3B,S4N), Texas (S4N), Utah (S4), Vermont (S5B), Virginia (S2B,S5N), Washington (S4S5B,S4S5N), West Virginia (S4B,S4N), Wisconsin (S3B), Wyoming (S3B,S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S2), Manitoba (S4B), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5B,S4N, SUM), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5B), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S4S5B), Saskatchewan (S4B), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: southern Alaska to Newfoundland, south to central California, southern Utah, southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Manitoba, northern Wisconsin, northern Ohio, New York, in mountains to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, northern Maryland, northern New Jersey, and southern Maine; also in highlands through Mexico to western Guatemala; isolated populations in South Dakota, Illinois, and Indiana (Ingold and Galati 1997, AOU 1998). NON-BREEDING: south-coastal Alaska and southern Canada south to northern Baja California, southwestern U.S., Guatemala, central Tamaulipas, Gulf Coast, and Florida (AOU 1998).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Widespread and range is expanding.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: In California alone estimated to have close to 5 million individuals. Density highest in western part of range. In winter (December - early January) highest densities occur west of Cascade Mountains in Washington, Oregon, and northern California; in East, highest winter density in coastal plains from northern Virginia to South Carolina, through Mississippi and extending along Arkansas - Louisiana border (Ingold and Galati 1997).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Northern part of range may be limited by severe winters. Up to 100 percent mortality estimated locally during severe storms (Ingold and Galati 1997). HABITAT: Habitat changes such as forest thinning, lumber activities, and spruce die-off may reduce local populations. Breeding densities also known to decline in burned and logged areas, habitats with open canopies, hardwood forests, and pure stands of eastern hemlock (TSUGA MERTENSIANA) and lodgepole pine (PINUS CONTORTA). Probably has benefited from spruce reforestation in the eastern United States. No information available about the effects of tropical deforestation (Ingold and Galati 1997). PARASITISM: Uncommon host to brown-headed cowbird (MOLOTHRUS ATER). Have been known to feed young cowbirds; male may chase cowbird from territory (Ingold and Galati 1997).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Regional variation. North American Breeding Bird Survey documented 2.7 percent annual decline in western part of range for 1966 - 1994. Significant increase (6.1 percent per year) in eastern part of range for the same period. For 1966 - 1994, four states and three Canadian provinces showed population increases (only New York was significant); three states and two provinces showed decrease (only California, Oregon, and Washington were significant; Ingold and Galati 1997). Raphael et al. (1988, cited in Ingold and Galati 1997) estimated that the population in the mid-1980s was 45 percent below historical level.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: southern Alaska to Newfoundland, south to central California, southern Utah, southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, southern Manitoba, northern Wisconsin, northern Ohio, New York, in mountains to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, northern Maryland, northern New Jersey, and southern Maine; also in highlands through Mexico to western Guatemala; isolated populations in South Dakota, Illinois, and Indiana (Ingold and Galati 1997, AOU 1998). NON-BREEDING: south-coastal Alaska and southern Canada south to northern Baja California, southwestern U.S., Guatemala, central Tamaulipas, Gulf Coast, and Florida (AOU 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, Hartford (09003)*, Litchfield (09005), Tolland (09013)*, Windham (09015)*
ID Ada (16001), Latah (16057), Shoshone (16079), Valley (16085)
MD Carroll (24013)*, Garrett (24023)
RI Providence (44007)
VA Bland (51021)*, Grayson (51077), Highland (51091), Russell (51167), Smyth (51173), Tazewell (51185)*, Washington (51191), Wythe (51197)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021)*, Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Farmington (01080207)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+*, Shetucket (01100002)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+*, Saugatuck (01100006)+*
02 Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+
05 Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Middle New (05050002)+*
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+
10 Gallatin (10020008)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+*, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+*, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+*, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+*, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Little Snake (14050003)+
16 Central Bear (16010102)+*
17 Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Salt (17040105)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small bird (kinglet).
Reproduction Comments: In northern Minnesota, begins nesting in mid-May; second clutch may be initiated in late June-early July (Galati 1991). Clutch size 5-11 (usually 8-9) (Terres 1980). Female incubates, about 14-15 days. Males feeds incubating female and fledglings from first brood. Young tended by both parents (both are required for successful nest), fledge at 18-19 days (may climb out of nest a couple days earlier), become independent about 2 months after egg laying; single pair may raise two broods in a single season (Galati 1991).
Ecology Comments: Territory size in northern Minnesota was 2.1-6.2 acres (mean 4.1 acres) (Galati 1991). Hatching and fledging success were high in Minnesota; the most frequent sources of nesting mortality were predation on nests (e.g., by red squirrel or gray jay), starvation of nestings due to loss of one or both parents, and faulty or infertile eggs (Galati 1991). Population declines occur after exceptionally cold winters. Commonly associates with chickadees, brown creepers, and downy woodpeckers during the nonbreeding period.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Northern breeding populations migrate south for winter.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Coniferous forest and woodland (especially spruce), in migration and winter also deciduous woodland, scrub and brush (AOU 1983). Nests usually in an evergreen, most often in crown 9-18 m above ground; average about 15 m in northern Minnesota (Terres 1980, Galati 1991).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds primarily on insects and their eggs (e.g., bark beetles, scale insects, aphids). Also drinks tree sap (Terres 1980) and eats some fruit and seeds (rare according to Galati 1991). Young are fed various insects and other small arthropods and sometimes small snails (Galati 1991). In Maine, winter diet appeared to consist primarily of geometrid caterpillars (Heinrich and Bell 1995, Wilson Bulletin 107:558-561). Forages among branches of trees, gleaning from foliage and bark. Often obtains prey while clinging to or hanging from foliage (Keast and Saunders 1991). Sometimes uses short flight to capture flying insect.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 10 centimeters
Weight: 6 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Monitoring Requirements: See Galati (1991) for information on nest study methods.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Oct1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M. KOENEN; Revisions by D.W. MEHLMAN
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Apr1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Peterson, R. T. 1980. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pages.

  • Peterson, R.T. 1980b. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Peterson, R.T. 1990b. A field guide to western birds. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Raphael, M. G., K. V. Rosenberg, and B. G. Marcot. 1988. Large-scale changes in bird populations of Douglas-fir forests, northwestern California. Bird Conservation 3:63-83.

  • Ryke, N., D. Winters, L. McMartin and S. Vest. 1994. Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive Species of the Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Comanche and Cimarron National Grasslands. May 25, 1994.

  • Scott, S. L. 1983. Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sinclair, P.H., W.A. Nixon, C.D. Eckert and N.L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 595pp.

  • Tarvin, K. A., and G. E. Woolfenden. 1999. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). No. 469 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Thompson, F. R., III. 1994. Temporal and spatial patterns of breeding brown-headed cowbirds in the midwestern United States. Auk 111:979-990.

  • Williams, L. 1952b. Breeding behavior of the Brewer blackbird. Condor 54:3-47.

  • Willson, M. F. 1966. Breeding ecology of the Yellow-headed Blackbird. Ecological Monographs 36:51-77.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

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