Rana aurora - Baird and Girard, 1852
Northern Red-legged Frog
Synonym(s): Rana aurora aurora Baird and Girard, 1852
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852 (TSN 173446)
French Common Names: grenouille pattes rouges
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100633
Element Code: AAABH01021
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Rana aurora aurora
Taxonomic Comments: Shaffer et al. (2004) presented genetic evidence supporting the recognition of Rana aurora and R. draytonii as distinct species.

MtDNA data suggest that R. aurora, R. cascadae, and R. muscosa form a clade within the R. boylii species group (Macey et al. 2001).
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 01Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Large range in western North America; substantial declines in some areas; still widespread, common, and apparently secure in many areas; warrants rangewide monitoring.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (01Nov1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (19May2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNA), California (S2?), Oregon (S3S4), Washington (S4)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (12Jan2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (01May2015)
Comments on COSEWIC: Designated Special Concern in April 1999. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2002, November 2004, and May 2015.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from southwestern British Columbia, including Vancouver Island in Canada, south along the coast of the United States (primarily west of Cascade-Sierran crest), to northwestern California (Shaffer et al. 2004). The species has been introduced and is well established and widely distributed on Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia; it is unclear whether the species is native there or introduced many years ago (Ovaska et al. 2002). Rana aurora also is introduced and established on Chichagof Island, Alaska; the source of the frogs was Oregon (Hodge 2004).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences.

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This species is relatively widespread and common over most of its range (McAllister and Leonard, in Jones et al. 2005; Pearl in Lannoo 2005).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Factors contributing to local declines include wetland destruction and degradation/fragmentation, urbanization, residential development, reservoir construction, stream channelization, livestock grazing of riparian vegetation, off-road vehicle activity, drought, overharvesting, and exotic fishes (bass, mosquitofish) and possibly bullfrogs (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1998; USFWS 1994, 1996, 2000; Adams 1999, 2000; Lawler et al. 1999; Cook and Jennings 2001; Kiesecker, Blaustein and Miller 2001a; Cook 2002). An important threat is the loss of wetlands in the Willamette Valley (Oregon) and Puget Lowlands (Washington), but populations remain in some urbanized areas (see Pearl, in Lannoo 2005). Conversion of habitat to more permanent ponds is an important threat (as this allows breeding waters to be invaded by non-native predators). Habitat characteristics and good leaping ability may render Rana aurora less vulnerable to bullfrog predation than is Rana pretiosa (Pearl et al. 2004). McAllister and Leonard (in Jones et al. 2005) noted that in many areas red-legged frogs coexist with bullfrogs.

Declines in the red-legged frog complex (including Rana draytonii) also have been attributed to global warming, UV-B radiation (Belden and Blaustein 2002), airborne contaminants (pesticide drift), and disease (see Davidson et al. 2001). Davidson et al. (2002) found support for the negative impact of wind-borne agrochemicals and weaker evidence for the widespread impact of habitat destruction and UV-B radiation; evidence did not support the hypothesis that declines have been caused by climate change.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Currently, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are declining, though the magnitude of the decline is uncertain.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Over the long term, extent of occurrence, area of occurrence, number/condition of subpoppulations, and population size have declined, but the amount of decline is uncertain.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from southwestern British Columbia, including Vancouver Island in Canada, south along the coast of the United States (primarily west of Cascade-Sierran crest), to northwestern California (Shaffer et al. 2004). The species has been introduced and is well established and widely distributed on Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia; it is unclear whether the species is native there or introduced many years ago (Ovaska et al. 2002). Rana aurora also is introduced and established on Chichagof Island, Alaska; the source of the frogs was Oregon (Hodge 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, CA, OR, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Del Norte (06015), Humboldt (06023), Mendocino (06045)
OR Benton (41003), Clackamas (41005), Clatsop (41007), Columbia (41009), Coos (41011), Curry (41015), Douglas (41019), Hood River (41027), Jackson (41029), Josephine (41033)*, Lane (41039), Lincoln (41041), Linn (41043), Marion (41047), Multnomah (41051), Polk (41053), Tillamook (41057), Wasco (41065), Washington (41067), Yamhill (41071)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Lower Columbia (17080006)+, Middle Fork Willamette (17090001)+, Coast Fork Willamette (17090002)+, Upper Willamette (17090003)+, Mckenzie (17090004)+, North Santiam (17090005)+, South Santiam (17090006)+, Middle Willamette (17090007)+, Yamhill (17090008)+, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+, Tualatin (17090010)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, Lower Willamette (17090012)+, Necanicum (17100201)+, Nehalem (17100202)+, Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu (17100203)+, Siletz-Yaquina (17100204)+, Alsea (17100205)+, Siuslaw (17100206)+, Siltcoos (17100207)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+, Umpqua (17100303)+, Coos (17100304)+, Coquille (17100305)+, Sixes (17100306)+, Applegate (17100309)+, Lower Rogue (17100310)+, Illinois (17100311)+*, Chetco (17100312)+
18 Smith (18010101)+, Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Lower Eel (18010105)+, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+, Upper Klamath (18010206)+*, Lower Klamath (18010209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
General Description: Dorsum brown, gray, olive, or reddish, with irregular dark spotting or blotching; usually has a dark mask above the whitish jaw stripe; adults usually red on lower abdomen and underside of legs; usually coarse blackish, red, and yellow mottling in groin; relatively long legs (heel reaches at least to nostril when extended leg is pulled forward; eyes face outward, well covered by lids when viewed from above; prominent dorsolateral folds; snout-vent length usually 4-13 cm; young may have yellow instead of red on underside of legs and in groin; adult males have enlarged forelimbs and thumb base and more extensive webbing (Stebbins 1985).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from R. PRETIOSA in having a mottled groin, eyes that are not turned upward, and the light jaw stripe ending before the shoulder rather than usually reaching the shoulder. Differs from R. CASCADAE in having less well-defined black spots on the dorsum, usually red rather than yellow on the lower abdomen and underside of the limbs, a more mottled groin, and generally smoother skin. Differs from R. BOYLII in having usually red rather than yellow on the underside of the limbs, a dark mask, prominent rather than indistinct dorsolateral folds, and smooth rather than granular eyedrums. (Stebbins 1985).
Reproduction Comments: Breeding time varies geographically; breeds March-July in the north. Breeding period lasts about 1-2 weeks. Eggs hatch in 5-7 weeks in western Oregon. Larvae metamorphose in about 11-20 weeks, but sometimes may overwinter. Larvae in British Columbia metamorphosed in 11-14 weeks.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: In Oregon, Hayes et al. (2001) found that four individuals moved 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 2.4 km between capture points (these were the largest documented movements).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes the vicinity of permanent waters of stream pools, marshes, ponds, and other quiet bodies of water. This frog regularly occurs in damp woods and meadows some distance from water, especially during wet weather. Individuals (especially juveniles) seasonally can be found in and near ephemeral pools. Estivation sites include small mammal burrows and moist leaf litter in dense riparian vegetation up to at least 26 meters from water (Rathbun et al. 1993, cited by USFWS 1994). Desiccation cracks in dry pond bottoms may be used as refuges (Alvarez, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:162-163). Breeding sites most often are in permanent water; eggs are attached to stiff submerged stems at the surface of the water.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Diet includes beetles, caterpillars, isopods, and various other small invertebrates (Nussbaum et al. 1983). In California, diet mainly invertebrates of shoreline or water surface; large adults also may eat small vertebartes. Larvae eat algae, organic debris, plant tissue, and other minute organisms.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures and hot, dry weather. May be active all year in coastal areas, inactive late summer to early winter elsewhere (Zeiner et al. 1988). In California, adults and subadults apparently mainly nocturnal; juveniles active day or night (Hayes and Tennant 1985).
Length: 14 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Group Name: Ranid Frogs

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Location
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway, especially at night, such that frogs rarely if ever cross successfully; urban development dominated by buildings and pavement; habitat in which site-specific data indicate the frogs virtually never occur.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: BARRIERS/UNSUITABLE HABITAT: Rivers may or may not be effective barriers, depending on stream width and flow dynamics; identification of streams as barriers is a subjective determination. Ranid frog species vary in habitat use, but even the most aquatic species may traverse upland habitat when conditions are suitable (Pope and Matthews 2001); natural and seminatural upland habitat generally does not constitute a barrier. Here, unsuitable habitat refers to upland habitat devoid or nearly devoid of wetlands, streams, ponds, or lakes. Bodies of water dominated by predatory fishes may be barriers to some species but suitable habitat for others; in most cases, such waters probably should be regarded as unsuitable habitat.

SUITABLE HABITAT: Suitable habitat includes riparian/riverine corridors, wetlands, and wetland/upland mosaics in which wetland patches are separated by less than 1 km of upland habitat; it also includes any upland habitat regularly used for feeding or wintering (e.g., mesic forest for wood frogs).

MOVEMENTS: Available information indicates that individual ranids occasionally move distances of several km (R. luteiventris: Reaser 1996, cited by Koch et al. 1997; R. blairi: Gillis 1975) but most individuals stay within a few kilometers of their breeding sites (R. aurora draytonii: USFWS, Federal Register, 11 September 2000; R. capito: Franz et al. 1988; R. clamitans: Lamoureux and Madison 1999; R. luteiventris: Turner 1960, Hollenbeck 1974, Bull and Hayes 2001). Similarly, maximum distance between capture points generally is a few kilometers or less (R. aurora: Hayes et al. 2001; USFWS, Federal Register, 11 September 2000; R. catesbeiana: Willis et al. 1956; R. luteiventris: Reaser and Pilliod, in press; Engle 2000; R. muscosa: Pope and Matthews 2001). Dispersal data for juveniles are lacking for most species.

Adult and juvenile R. sylvatica readily traveled in excess of 300 m from their pools of origin (Vasconcelos and Calhoun 2004). Bellis (1965) determined that adult and juvenile R. sylvatica in a peat bog had traveled at least 410 m from the nearest breeding pool. Berven and Grudzien (1990) found that dispersing R. sylvatica juveniles traveled an average of 1,208 m from their natal pools. In the Shenandoah Mountains, data for R. sylvatica indicated that ponds separated by a distance greater than 1,000 m should experience little gene flow (Berven and Grudzien 1991). In contrast, populations in Minnesota were very similar in allelic frequencies, even at distances greater than several kilometers (Squire and Newman 2002). However, sample sizes and number of loci examined were small, and genetic patterns do not necessarily reflect movement distances.

The preponderance of data for ranids indicate that a separation distance of several kilometers may be appropriate for suitable habitat and practical for occurrence delineation, despite occasional movements that are longer and that may allow some genetic interchange between distant populations. The movement data for ranids are here regarded as consistent enough to allow the same separation distance to be used for different species; much of the apparent variation in movements doubtless reflects differences in study methods and in the ability to detect long-distance movements.

Date: 01Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jun2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25May2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Altig, R. and Dumas, P.C. 1972. Rana aurora. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 160:1-4.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Biosystems Analysis, Inc. 1989. Endangered Species Alert Program Manual: Species Accounts and Procedures. Southern California Edison Environmental Affairs Division.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Briggs, J. L., Sr. 1987. Breeding biology of the Cascade frog, Rana cascadae, with comparisons to R. aurora and R. pretiosa. Copeia 1987:241-245.

  • Brown, H.A. 1975. Reproduction and development of the red-legged frog, Rana aurora, in northwestern Washington. North-west Science 49(4):241-252.

  • COSEWIC. 2002. Canadian Species at Risk, May 2002. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 34 pp. Available online: http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Cook, D., and M. R. Jennings. 2001. Rana aurora draytonii. Predation. Herpetological Review 32:182-183.

  • Corkran, C. C., and C. Thoms. 1996. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta. 175 pp.

  • Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, J. A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, D. R. Frost, R. Highton, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Meylan, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, J. W. Sites, Jr., T. W. Taggart, S. G. Tilley, and D. B. Wake. 2000 [2001]. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular No. 29. 82 pp.

  • Davidson, C., H. B. Shaffer, and M. R. Jennings. 2001. Declines of the California red-legged frog: climate, UV-B, habitat, and pesticides hypotheses. Ecological Applications 11:464-479.

  • Fellers, G. M., A. E. Launer, G. Rathbun, S. Bobzien, J. Alvarez, D. Sterner, R. B. Seymour, and M. Westphal. 2001. Overwintering tadpoles in the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii). Herpetological Review 32:156-157.

  • Frost, D. R. 2010. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  • Green, D. M. 1985. Biochemical identification of red-legged frogs, RANA AURORA DRAYTONI, at Duckwater, Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 30:614-616.

  • Green, D.M. 1986a. Systematics and evolution of western North American frogs allied to Rana aurora and Rana boylii: karyological evidence. Systematic Zoology 35:273-282.

  • Green, D.M. 1986b. Systematics and evolution of western North American frogs allied to Rana aurora and Rana boylii: electrophoretic evidence. Systematic Zoology 35:283-296.

  • Hayes, M. P., C. A. Pearl, and C. J. Rombough. 2001. Rana aurora aurora. Movement. Herpetological Review 32:35-36.

  • Hayes, M. P., and M. M. Miyamoto. 1984. Biochemical, behavioral and body size differences between RANA AURORA AURORA and R. A. DRAYTONI. Copeia 1984:1018-1022.

  • Hayes, M. P., and M. R. Jennings. 1988. Habitat correlates of distribution of the California red-legged frog (RANA AURORA) and the foothill yellow-legged frog (RANA BOYLII): implications for management. Pages 144-158 in Szaro, R.C., et al., technical coordinators. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America. USDA For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166.

  • Hayes, M. P., and M. R. Tennant. 1985. Diet and feeding behavior of the California red-legged frog, RANA AURORA DRAYTONI (Ranidae). Southwestern Naturalist 30:601-605.

  • Jones, L.L.C., W. P. Leonard, and D. H. Olson, editors. 2005. Amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington. xii + 227 pp.

  • Kiesecker, J. M., and A. R. Blaustein. 1998. Effects of introduced bullfrogs and smallmouth bass on microhabitat use, growth, and survival of native red-legged frogs (Rana aurora). Conservation Biology 12:776-787.

  • Lannoo, M. (editor). 2005. Amphibian declines: the conservation status of United States species. University of California Press, Berkeley. xxi + 1094 pp.

  • Lawler, S. P., D. Dritz, T. Strange, and M. Holyoak. 1999. Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conservation Biology 13:613-622.

  • Leonard, W. P., H. A. Brown, L. L. C. Jones, K. R. McAllister, and R. M. Storm. 1993. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington. viii + 168 pp.

  • Licht, L.E. 1971. Breeding habits and embryonic thermal requirements of the frogs, Rana aurora aurora and Rana pretiosa pretiosa, in the Pacific Northwest. Ecology 52(1):116-124.

  • Macey, J. R., J. L. Strasburg, J. A. Brisson, V. T. Vredenburg, M. Jennings, and A. Larson. 2001. Molecular phylogenetics of western North American frogs of the Rana boylii species group. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19:131-143.

  • Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr., and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 332 pp.

  • Shaffer, H. B., G. M. Fellers, S. R. Voss, J. C. Oliver, and G. B. Pauly. 2004. Species boundaries, phylogeography and conservation genetics of the red-legged frog (Rana aurora/draytonii) complex. Molecular Ecology 13:2667-2777.

  • Species at Risk Branch. 2002. Species at risk range maps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Online. Available: http://www.sis.ec.gc.ca/download_e.htm.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 13 March 2001. Final determination of critical habitat for the California red-legged frog. Federal Register 66(49):14626-14758.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. Proposed endangered status for the California red-legged frog. Federal Register 59(22):4888-4895. 2 February 1994.

  • Zeiner, D.C., W.F. Laudenslayer, Jr., and K.E. Mayer, editors. 1988. Califonia's wildlife. Vol. I. Amphibians and reptiles. California Dept. Fish and Game, Sacramento. ix + 272 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.