Quercus macrocarpa - Michx.
Bur Oak
Other Common Names: bur oak
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (TSN 19287)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158441
Element Code: PDFAG05190
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Beech Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fagales Fagaceae Quercus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Quercus macrocarpa
Taxonomic Comments: Flora North America does not recognize Q. macrocarpa var. depressa as a distinct variety, while Kartesz (1999) does.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25May2018
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Quercus macrocarpa is a wide ranging species in North America, occurring across most of the eastern United States and southern Canada. The number of occurrences and population size can't be quantified with available data, but it is believed to be abundant throughout most of its range. While there are threats to this species in parts of the range, the overall impact is low. Some treatments recognize two varieties (var. depressa and var. macrocarpa). Not enough information is available to assess variety depressa at this times, so individual assessments of varieties are incomplete. Most of the range is attributed to var. macrocarpa.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (18Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SU), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S1), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S1), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S1S2), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S2), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S2), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S4), North Carolina (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S2S4), Rhode Island (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2S3)
Canada Alberta (SU), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S2), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S3S4), Saskatchewan (S5?)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Quercus macrocarpa occurs in eastern temperate North America including the north-central United States and eastern Great Plains, as far south as Texas and Alabama and as far east as Maryland and Pennsylvania and northward to Maine. It extends even farther north into south-central and southeastern Canada.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: While the number of occurrences for this species is unknown, there are expected to be over 300 rangewide.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Known threats to this species include: conversion of land to agricultural use, livestock introductions, and active fire suppression. The species has declined on savannas and prairies due to grazing and fire suppression. Fire suppression causes a shift in species, to more shade-tolerant maple-basswood forests. There are few insects or diseases that cause serious damage to the species (Kenny and Wenzell 2015).

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Quercus macrocarpa occurs in eastern temperate North America including the north-central United States and eastern Great Plains, as far south as Texas and Alabama and as far east as Maryland and Pennsylvania and northward to Maine. It extends even farther north into south-central and southeastern Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DEexotic, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Pickens (01107)*
CT Litchfield (09005)
LA Bossier (22015), Caddo (22017)*
MA Berkshire (25003), Hampshire (25015)*
MD Allegany (24001), Baltimore (city) (24510)*, Caroline (24011), Frederick (24021)*, Harford (24025), Montgomery (24031), Queen Annes (24035)*, Talbot (24041)*, Washington (24043)
MS Chickasaw (28017), Clay (28025), Lowndes (28087), Oktibbeha (28105), Pontotoc (28115), Tishomingo (28141)
MT Big Horn (30003), Carter (30011)
NH Belknap (33001)*, Grafton (33009)
NJ Sussex (34037)
VA Clarke (51043), Frederick (51069), Rockingham (51165), Warren (51187)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070002)+*, Merrimack (01070006)+*, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Choptank (02060005)+*, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, North Fork Shenandoah (02070006)+*, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+*, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+
03 Town (03160102)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+*
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
10 Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+
11 Bodcau Bayou (11140205)+, Cross Bayou (11140304)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Bur Oak is a small to large tree. Its bark is deeply furrowed and twigs are stout. The alternate, oblong-elliptic leaves are 10-20 cm in length and are deeply to shallowly lobed, with the terminal lobe being the largest. Leaves are dark green and shiny above but silvery below with fine, star-shaped hairs. Male flowers of 5-10 stamens are borne in long, loose, pendulous inflorescences from the leaf axils. 1 to several female flowers occur in the axils of new leaves. The acorn is up to 2-4 cm long, ellipsoidal, and the top half or more is enclosed by a roughened, fringe-margined cup.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This is Montana's only native oak.
Duration: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Ecology Comments: This species is one of the most cold tolerant and drought resistant oaks (Kenny and Wenzell 2015).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Quercus macrocarpa is typically found on limestone or calcareous clay  but in a wide range of habitats including bottomlands, riparian slopes, poorly drained areas, prairies and in a variety of moisture regimes. The species can tolerate fairly dry and cold conditions: in the northwestern portion of its, it occurs on dry slopes and ridges, prairies (FNA 1997; Kenny and Wenzell 2015).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Building materials/timber, LANDSCAPING, Cultivated ornamental
Economic Comments: Wood from this species is used to make railroad ties, cabinetry, barrels, hardwood flooring, and fence posts. It is cultivated as an ornamental and makes and excellent specimen tree or park tree Kenny and Wenzell 2015).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25May2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Treher (2018)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25May2018
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM(1994), rev. Treher (2018)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Abrams, M. D. 1992. Fire and the development of oak forests. BioScience 42: 346-352.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Girard, M. M., H. Goetz, and A. Bjugstad. 1989. Native woodland habitat types of southwestern North Dakota. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Research Paper RM-281. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft Collins, Colorado. 36 pp.

  • Heidel, B.L. 1993. Survey for QUERCUS MACROCARPA in the Powder River Resource Area, Miles City District, Bureau of Land Management, Montana. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management, Miles City District. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 13 pp. plus appendices.

  • Heidel, B.L. 1993. Survey for QUERCUS MACROCARPA in the Powder River Resource Area, Miles City District, Bureau of Land Management, Montana. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management, Miles City District. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 13 pp. plus appendices.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kenny, L., and K. Wenzell. 2015. Quercus macrocarpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T33991A2839807. Online. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T33991A2839807.en (accessed 25 May 2018).

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Severson, K.E. and J.K. Kranz. 1978. Management of burr oak on deer winter range. Wildlife Society Bulletin 6:212-216.

  • Sieg, C. H. 1991. Ecology of bur oak woodlands in the foothills of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.

  • Sieg, C. H. and H. A. Wright. 1996. The role of prescribed burning in regenerating Quercus macrocarpa and associated woody plants in stringer woodlands in the Black Hills, South Dakota. International Journal of Wildlands Fire 6: 21-29.

  • Vanderhorst, J., S. V. Cooper, and B. L. Heidel. 1998. Botanical and vegetation survey of Carter County, Montana. Unpublished report to Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 116 pp. + appendices.

  • citation currently unavailable in central databases; housed at Heritage program

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