Amphinaias pustulosa - (I. Lea, 1831)
Pimpleback
Synonym(s): Quadrula pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Quadrula pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831) (TSN 80062)
French Common Names: mulette pustulée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.113828
Element Code: IMBIV39110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Amphinaias
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Quadrula pustulosa
Taxonomic Comments: In a study of molecular phylogeny of the genus Quadrula, sequence data from the ND1 gene portion did not resolve relationships among populations of Quadrula aurea and Quadrula pustulosa and additional data will be necessary to test the validity of these taxonomic entities (Serb et al., 2003). Also, Quadrula mortoni, previously reduced to a subspecies of Quadrula pustulosa (Turgeon et al., 1998), is likely a valid species. Graf and Cummings (2007) moved the Genus from Quadrula to Amphinaias.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19May2009
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a widespread and common species in North America with stable populations throughout its range with the exception of perhaps the northeastern occurrences from New York to West Virginia.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (16Jul1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (14Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Arkansas (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S2), New York (SH), North Carolina (SX), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S4), Pennsylvania (S1), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S1), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (10Jul2017)
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range of this species includes the entire Mississippi River drainage, from New York and Pennsylvania west to the Dakotas, and south to eastern Texas and Louisiana and Alabama (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In Minnesota, it is widespread and common in the St. Croix drainage and Mississippi River below St. Anthony Falls; uncommon to rare in the Minnesota River (Sietman, 2003). It is widespread and abundant in S Wisconsin in large rivers and part of NE (Mathiak, 1979). It is in the Kalamazoo (Mulcrone and Mehlne, 2001), Lake Michigan and St. Croix/Detroit drainage in Michigan (Strayer, 1980; Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Illinois, it is in most drainages; locally abundant (Cummings and Mayer, 1997; Schanzle and Cummings, 1991); Fox in Illinois and Wisconsin (Schanzle et al., 2004), Rock (Tiemann et al., 2005). Indiana distribution: Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), E Fork White (Harmon, 1992), Muscatatuck (Harmon, 1989), St. Joseph, St. Mary's and Maumee (Pryor, 2005). In Ohio, it is widespread except Great Miami (Watters, 1992; 1995; Hoggarth et al., 2007; Watters et al., 2009). In West Virginia, it is in the Upper Ohio/Kanawha (Zeto et al., 1987; Morris and Taylor, 1992). In Mississippi, it is in the Mississippi River N and S, Big Black, Yazoo, and Tennessee drainages (Jones et al., 2005). In Louisiana, it is common and widely distributed in the Mississippi River and tributaries (Vidrine, 1993). It was found in Ouachita (Posey, 1997), St. Francis (Ahlstedt and Jenkinson, 1991), Poteau (Vaughn and Spooner, 2004), Cache and White Rivers, Arkansas (Christian, 1995; Christian et al., 2005; Gordon, 1982; Gordon et al., 1994); and lower Arkansas (Gordon, 1985). In North Carolina, it is questionable (extirpated?) because Lea described U. pernodosus from North Carolina and Ortmann (1918) considers it a possible synonym (Bogan, 2002). Oklahoma: Poteau River, Lake Texoma, Illinois and Mountain Fork (Spooner and Vaughn, 2007) rivers, Spring (Branson, 1966), Red, Washita, Blue, Boggy, Kiamichi, Little (Vaughn and Taylor, 1999), Arkansas, Verdigris (Boeckman and Bidwell, 2008), Neosho, Poteau and Chikaskia rivers, and Cache Creek, Chikaskia River, and "Oklahoma City" (Branson, 1982; Vaughn, 2000). In Texas, it is in the Brazos River into the N and E but as mortoni (valid species?) (Howells et al., 1996); indicating actual pustulosa in only far E Texas. Subspecies mortoni was found across Village Creek drainage (Hardin, Tyler, Polk Cos.) (Bordelon and Harrel, 2004). In Kansas, it is in all drainages in the eastern third (Couch, 1997; Tiemann, 2006); incl. Spring (Branson, 1966). In the Little Blue River basin it is as weathered shells in Nebraska and one recent shell in Kansas (Hoke, 2004). In the Big Blue system of SE Nebraska and NE Kansas it was relatively common in Nebraska and rare in creeks in the E Nebraska reaches of the Little Blue basin, shells in Kansas portion in poor condition with only one live individual (Hoke, 2005). It is in the James River, South Dakota (Perkins and Backlund, 2003) with dead shells in the Big Sioux (Skadsen and Perkins, 2000). In Tennessee, it is in the majority of medium to large rivers throughout the state, from the Hatchie River in W Tennessee to the upper Clinch, Powell, Holston, and Nolichucky Rivers in E Tennessee (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). In Alabama, it is common and restricted to the Tennessee River system (Mirarchi, 2004) across N Alabama including tributaries (Elk, Paint Rock Rivers, Bear Creek- McGregor and Garner, 2004) (Ahlstedt, 1996; Williams et al., 2008). It has been collected in Kentucky in the Middle Green (Gordon, 1991), South Fork Kentucky (Evans, 2008) and Barren Rivers (Cochran and Layzer, 1993), but is generally distributed statewide (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003). In Canada, this species has a limited distribution in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, Niagara River, and the lower reaches of the Grand, Thames, and Sydenham Rivers in southwestern Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004; Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: During surveys of the Village Creek drainage of Hardin, Tyler, and Polk Cos. in southeast Texas in 2001-2002, the subspecies mortoni was found in 20 sites (of 22 surveyed) (712 spms.) (Bordelon and Harrel, 2004).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: In Minnesota, this species is found in medium to large rivers and is widespread and locally common in the St. Croix River drainage and Mississippi River below St. Anthony Falls (Sietman, 2003). It was recently documented in the Fox River basin in Illinois and Wisconsin where it is common and widespread in the mainstem (Schanzle et al., 2004). During surveys of the Village Creek drainage of Hardin, Tyler, and Polk Cos. in southeast Texas in 2001-2002, the subspecies mortoni was found in 20 sites (of 22 surveyed) (most frequently encountered and most dense taxon- 712 spms.) (Bordelon and Harrel, 2004).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: This species is extirpated from North Carolina where it formerly occurred in Tennessee River drainages (LeGrand et al., 2006).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species has generalized habitat preferences and can maintain abundant and viable populations in shallow to deep sections of large reservoirs as well as in small to medium-sized free-flowing rivers. It is usually found in a substrate consisting of coarse gravel, sand, and silt (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) The range of this species includes the entire Mississippi River drainage, from New York and Pennsylvania west to the Dakotas, and south to eastern Texas and Louisiana and Alabama (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NCextirpated, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Jackson (01071), Limestone (01083), Madison (01089), Marshall (01095), Morgan (01103)
IA Allamakee (19005), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Buena Vista (19021), Carroll (19027), Cedar (19031), Clay (19041), Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Des Moines (19057), Dubuque (19061), Greene (19073), Hardin (19083), Humboldt (19091), Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105), Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Muscatine (19139), Scott (19163), Wapello (19179)
NE Antelope (31003), Colfax (31037)*, Dixon (31051)*, Dodge (31053)*, Douglas (31055), Gage (31067), Hamilton (31081), Holt (31089), Jefferson (31095)*, Lancaster (31109)*, Otoe (31131)*, Platte (31141), Richardson (31147), Saline (31151), Sarpy (31153), Seward (31159), Washington (31177), Wayne (31179)*, York (31185)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Armstrong (42005)*, Beaver (42007)*, Erie (42049), Fayette (42051)*, Lawrence (42073)*, Washington (42125)*, Westmoreland (42129)*
SD Hutchinson (46067), Minnehaha (46099), Yankton (46135)
TX Denton (48121), Lamar (48277)
VA Lee (51105), Scott (51169)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Lake Erie (04120200)+
05 Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+*, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+*, Cheat (05020004)+*, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+*, Mahoning (05030103)+*, Beaver (05030104)+*
06 Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Lower Elk (06030004)+
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+
10 Lower James (10160011)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+, Salt (10200203)+*, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Logan (10220004)+*, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+*, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+*, Big Nemaha (10240008)+, Upper Big Blue (10270201)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+, Turkey (10270204)+, Lower Little Blue (10270207)+*
11 Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103)+, Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Hubbard (12060105), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Infestation by glochidia has been confirmed (though transformation not tested) on Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) (Weiss and Layzer, 1995); with historical hosts listed as Ameiurus melas (black bullhead), Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead), Pomoxis annularis (white crappie), Pylodictis olivaris (flathead catfish), and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (shovelnose sturgeon) (Coker et al., 1921; Wilson, 1916; Howard, 1913; 1914; Surber, 1913; Howard and Anson, 1922).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species has generalized habitat preferences and can maintain abundant and viable populations in shallow to deep sections of large reservoirs as well as in small to medium-sized free-flowing rivers. It is usually found in a substrate consisting of coarse gravel, sand, and silt (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19May2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Apr2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bogan, A.E. 2002. Workbook and key to the freshwater bivalves of North Carolina. North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences: Raleigh, North Carolina. 101 pp.

  • Bordelon, V.L. and R.C. Harrel. 2004. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Village Creek drainage basin in southeast Texas. The Texas Journal of Science, 56(1): 63-72.

  • Branson, B.A. 1966a. A partial biological survey of the Spring River drainage in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri. Part I, collecting sites, basic limnological data, and mollusks. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3/4): 242-293.

  • Christian, A.D. 1995. Analysis of the commercial mussel beds in the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. M.S. Thesis, Arkansas State University. 210 pp.

  • Cochran, T.G. II and J.B. Layzer. 1993. Effects of commercial harvest on unionid habitat use in the Green and Barren Rivers, Kentucky. Pages 61-65 in K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, and L.M. Koch (eds.) Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels: Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October, 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 189 pp.

  • Coker, R.E., A.F. Shira, H.W. Clark, and A.D. Howard. 1921. Natural history and propagation of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries 37:78-181.

  • Cummings, K.S. and J.M. Berlocher. 1990. The naiades or freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Tippecanoe River, Indiana. Malacological Review 23:83-98.

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  • Hoke, E. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Little Blue River drainage of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 29: 7-24.

  • Howard, A.D. 1913. The catfish as a host for fresh-water mussels. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 42: 65-70.

  • Howard, A.D. 1914. Experiments in propagation of fresh-water mussels of the Quadrula group. Report of the U.S. Commission of Fisheries for 1913. Appendix 4: 1-52 + 6 plates. [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 801].

  • Howard, A.D. 1915. Some exceptional cases of breeding among the Unionidae. The Nautilus 29:4-11.

  • Howard, A.D. and B.J. Anson. 1922. Phases in the parasitism of the Unionidae. Journal of Parasitology, 9(2): 68-82.

  • LeGrand, H.E., Jr., S.P. Hall, S.E. McRae, and J.T. Finnegan. 2006. Natural Heritage Program List of the Rare Animal Species of North Carolina. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh, North Carolina. 104 pp.

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  • Moyle, P. and J. Bacon. 1969. Distribution and abundance of molluscs in a fresh water environment. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 35(2/3):82-85.

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  • Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennesee. 328 pp.

  • Perkins III, K. and D.C. Backlund. 2003. A survey for winged mapleleaf (Quadrula fragosa) and scaleshell (Leptodea leptodon) in the James River, South Dakota. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota, Report GFP 2003-17. 21 pp.

  • Robertson, I. and C. Blakeslee. 1948. The mollusca of the Niagara Frontier region. Bulletin Buffalo Society Natural Science 19: 1-191.

  • Schanzle, R.W. and K.S. Cummings. 1991. A survey of the freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Sangamon River basin, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes, 137: 1-25.

  • Schanzle, R.W., G.W. Kruse, J.A. Kath, R.A. Klocek, and K.S. Cummings. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Fox River basin, Illinois and Wisconsin. Illinois Natural History Biological Notes, 141: 1-35.

  • Serb, J.M., J.E. Buhan, and C. Lydeard. 2003. Molecular systematics of the North American freshwater bivalve genus Quadrula (Unionidae: Ambleminae) based on mitochondrial ND1 sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28: 1-11.

  • Skadsen, D.R. and K. Perkins III. 2000. Unionid mussels of the Big Sioux River and tributaries: Moody, Minnehaha, Lincoln, and Union Counties, South Dakota. GFP Report 2000-9 to the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, South Dakota. 52 pp.

  • Spoo, A. 2008. The Pearly Mussels of Pennsylvania. Coachwhip Publications: Landisville, Pennsylvania. 210 pp.

  • Strayer, D. 1983. The effects of surface geology and stream size on freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionidae) distribution in southeastern Michigan, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 13:253-264.

  • Strayer, D.L. 1999a. Use of flow refuges by unionid mussels in rivers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18(4):468-476.

  • Strayer, D.L. and J. Ralley. 1993. Microhabitat use by an assemblage of stream-dwelling unionaceans (Bivalvia) including two rare species of Alasmidonta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12(3):247-258.

  • Strayer, David L. and K.J. Jirka. 1997. The Pearly Mussels (Bivalva: Unionoidea) of New York State. New York State Museum Memoir 26. The New York State Education Department.

  • Surber, T. 1913. Notes on the natural hosts of fresh-water mussels. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, 32: 101-116.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Van der Schalie, H. 1938a. The naiad fauna of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 40:7-78.

  • Vaughn, C.C. and C.M. Taylor. 1999. Impoundments and the decline of freshwater mussels: a case study of an extinction gradient. Conservation Biology, 13(4): 912-920.

  • Vaughn, C.C. and D.E. Spooner. 2004. Status of the mussel fauna of the Poteau River and implications for commercial harvest. American Midland Naturalist, 152: 336-346.

  • Watters, G. Thomas. 1994. An Annotated Bibliography of the Reproduction and Propogation of the Unionoidea (Primarily of North America). Ohio Biological Survey, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University. In cooperation with Ohio Division of Wildlife. 158 pp.

  • Watters, G.T. 1992a. Unionids, fishes, and the species-area curve. Journal of Biogeography 19:481-490.

  • Watters, G.T. 1992b. Distribution of the Unionidae in south central Ohio. Malacology Data Net 3(1-4):56-90.

  • Weiss, J.L. and J.B. Layzer. 1995. Infestation of glochidia on fishes in the Barren River, Kentucky. American Malacological Bulletin, 11(2): 153-159.

  • Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, and J. T Garner. 2008. Freshwater mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi, & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pages.

  • Williams, J.D., M.L. Warren, Jr., K.S. Cummings, J.L. Harris, and R.J. Neves. 1993b. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9): 6-22.

  • Wilson, C. B. 1916. Copepod parasites of fresh-water fishes and their economic relations to mussel glochidia. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. [Issued separately as U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document 824], 34: 333-374 + 15 plates.

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  • Oesch, R.D. 1995. Missouri Naiades. A Guide to the Mussels of Missouri. Second edition. Missouri Department of Conservation: Jefferson City, Missouri. viii + 271 pp.

  • Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.

  • Posey II, W.R. 1997. Location, species composition and community estimates for mussel beds in the St. Francis and Ouachita Rivers, Arkansas. M.S. Thesis, Arkansas State University. 178 pp.

  • Pryor, W.W. 2005. Distribution of the native freshwater mussels in the rivers of Allen County, Indiana. Report to the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 71 pp.

  • Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

  • Sietman, B.E., S.D. Whitney, D.E. Kelner, K.D. Blodgett, and H.L. Dunn. 2001. Post-extirpation recovery of the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna in the Upper Illinois River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 16(2): 273-281.

  • Spooner, D.E. and C.C. Vaughn. 2007. Mussels of the Mountain Fork River, Arkansas and Oklahoma. Publications of the Oklahoma Biological Survey, 2nd series, 8: 14-18.

  • Strayer, D. 1980. The freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Clinton River, Michigan, with comments on man's impact on the fauna, 1870-1978. The Nautilus 94(4):142-149.

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