Quadrula kleiniana - (I. Lea, 1852)
Florida Mapleleaf
Other English Common Names: Suwannee Pigtoe
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.836270
Element Code: IMBIV39220
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Quadrula
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Lydeard, C., R. Minton, and J.D. Williams. 2000. Prodigious polyphyly in imperiled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations. Pages 145-158 In E.M. Harper, J. D. Taylor, and J. A. Crame (eds.) The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 177.
Concept Reference Code: A00LYD01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Quadrula kleiniana
Taxonomic Comments: Sometimes placed in the genus Quincuncina.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Dec2013
Global Status Last Changed: 16Feb2010
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This species, recently elevated to species status from Quadrula infucata, is endemic to the Suwannee River drainage in northern Florida and southern Georgia. It appears to have disappeared from large portions of the main channel of the Suwannee River though remains relatively common in the Santa Fe River.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3 (16Feb2010)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-5000 square km (about 100-2000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The species is endemic to the Suwannee River system of northern Florida and southern Georgia. It occurs in the Withlacoochee, Alapaha, and Santa Fe rivers, all tributaries of the Suwannee River (Lydeard et al., 2000; Williams, 2013 pers. comm.).

Area of Occupancy: 101-2,000 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Known from a substantial portion of the Santa Fe River and probably of the Suwannee, Alapaha, and Withalcoochee rivers as well. Linear occupancy is 200-1000 km.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from a fair number of sites within the Santa Fe River drainage, as well as scattered locations in the Suwannee River (Lydeard et al., 2000; Williams, 2013 pers. comm.). However, given the lack of dams (separation barriers), it may be appropriate to consider all sites as part of one element occurrence.

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Apparently there is a good population in the Santa Fe River.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: It apparently has disappeared from large portions of the main channel of the Suwannee River (Lydeard et al., 2000), though the timeframe is uncertain.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >30%
Long-term Trend Comments: It apparently has disappeared from large portions of the main channel of the Suwannee River (Lydeard et al., 2000), though the timeframe is uncertain.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Freshwater mussels are inherently vulnerable to threats from siltation, pollution, eutrophication, channelization, impoundment, collection, drought and water withdrawal, competiton from invasive non-native mussels, and changes to larval host fish populations.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Maintain high water and benthic habitat (substrate) qualities, as well as adequate flow regimes, throughout the Suwannee River system. This may be partially accomplished via establishment of buffers and streamside management zones for all agricultural, silvicultural, mining, and developmental activities; protection of floodplain forests and adjoining upland habitat is paramount. Best management practices to follow include employing forestry practices that cause minimal soil erosion; preventing access of livestock to natural surface waters and drains; situating roads at least 0.25 mi. (0.4 km) from heads of all tributaries, even more on steep slopes; using silt fencing and vegetation to control runoff and siltation at all stream crossings, especially during construction and maintenance; using and maintaining sewer systems rather than septic tanks and stream-dumping for management of wastewater; and avoiding use of agricultural pesticides on porous soils near streams. Prevent damming, dredging, and pollution throughout drainages, but especially near recorded sites. Remove existing dams if any, but with great care to limit downstream sedimentation. Limit withdrawal of surface and subterranean waters as necessary to maintain normal stream flows, especially during drought. Prevent or limit establishment of invasive species (including zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha) to the extent possible. Where appropriate, protect populations through acquisitions and easements over streamside lands by working with government agencies and conservation organizations. Management of the Apalachicola River system must address multiple threats, especially water withdrawal in the state of Georgia.

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-5000 square km (about 100-2000 square miles)) The species is endemic to the Suwannee River system of northern Florida and southern Georgia. It occurs in the Withlacoochee, Alapaha, and Santa Fe rivers, all tributaries of the Suwannee River (Lydeard et al., 2000; Williams, 2013 pers. comm.).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202)+, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Little (03110204)+, Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: It is usually larger and more sculptured than Quadrula infucata but intermediate forms exist (Lydeard et al., 2000).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): MEDIUM RIVER
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Jan2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jackson, D. R. (2013); Cordeiro, J. (2010)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Feb2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Lydeard, C., R. Minton, and J.D. Williams. 2000. Prodigious polyphyly in imperiled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations. Pages 145-158 In E.M. Harper, J. D. Taylor, and J. A. Crame (eds.) The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 177.

  • Williams, J. D.  2013a.  Comments on the status of the bivalve mussels Quadrula infucata and Q. kleiniana.  E-mail to D. R. Jackson, dated 22 December 2013.

  • Williams, J. D., R. S. Butler, G. L. Warren, and N. A. Johnson.  2014a.  Freshwater Mussels of Florida.  University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 498 pp.

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