Quadrula fragosa - (Conrad, 1835)
Winged Mapleleaf
Other English Common Names: Rough Maple Leaf Pearlymussel
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Quadrula fragosa (Conrad, 1835) (TSN 80075)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.111959
Element Code: IMBIV39050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Quadrula
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Quadrula fragosa
Taxonomic Comments: This species was recognized as valid, although apparently often confused with Quadrula quadrula, until Neel (1941) synonymized it and several other species under Quadrula quadrula. Neel's (1941) "Q. quadrula" is a composite species representing a complex of closely related species rather than one highly polymorphic entity.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Nov2018
Global Status Last Changed: 26May1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: The species was once extremely widespread (15 states historically; 5 now) and now is limited to 4-5 isolated populations (depending upon connectivity of the two Arkansas populations). It is imminently threatened with extinction, thus its status as a Federally listed, 2C Recovery Priority Species. Due to the mistaken synonomy of it under Quadrula quadrula by Neel (1941) and its relative rarity compared to the latter species, the declines in its populations were not recognized until relatively recently. It is currently known from the Little River in Oklahoma, the Saline and Ouachita Rivers in Arkansas, the Bourbeuse River in Missouri, and the St. Croix River bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. One to perhaps three of these populations are probably viable, but have yet to be clearly defined as such. Re-introductions at historical locations have been attempted in recent years.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (26May1998)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S1), Illinois (SX), Indiana (SX), Iowa (SX), Kansas (SX), Kentucky (SX), Minnesota (S1), Missouri (S1), Ohio (SX), Oklahoma (S1), South Dakota (SX), Tennessee (S1), Wisconsin (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population (20Jun1991)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central
IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered
American Fisheries Society Status: Endangered (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The species was once extremely widespread (15 states historically). Currently, it is limited to 4-5 isolated populations (depending upon connectivity of the two Arkansas populations): the Little River in Oklahoma, the Saline and Ouachita Rivers in Arkansas, the Bourbeuse River in Missouri, and the St. Croix River bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. GeoCat calculated the historical range of the species at 1,097,273 km2 and its present range at 242,839 km2 (not counting locations where re-introduction attempts are taking place). Because of misidentifications (confusion with Quadrula quadrula), published records cannot be relied upon to accurately reflect the distribution of this species.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Used 1-km2 grid cells because this is a linear species. Estimates of AOO ranged from 22 to 25 1-km2 grid cells.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Currently, this species is only known from four or five isolated populations (count depends upon whether one considers the Arkansas locations as one connected population or not): the Little River in Oklahoma, the Saline and Ouachita Rivers in Arkansas, the Bourbeuse River in Missouri, and the St. Croix River bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Population Size: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: USFWS (2015) reported the Saline River, Arkansas, population as having at least 24,207 individuals, the Ouachita River, Arkansas, population of at least 3,388, and the St. Croix River, Wisconsin and Minnesota, population with 13,000 individuals. Estimates have not been made for the Bourbeuse River, Missouri, and the Little River, Oklahoma, populations. These estimates indicate that the species has a population of at least 40,595.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Numbers of individuals comprising the populations of the St. Croix River (13,000 individuals) and the Ouachita/Saline Rivers (27,595) indicate that they may be viable. However, a minimum viable population size has yet to be established for this species as part of defining viability and only the St. Croix River population meets the criterion of persistence for at least 24 years (USFWS 2015).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Chemical and organic pollution, alteration and inundation of river channels and siltation have, and continue to have, a severe negative impact on this species. Commercial harvest of shells may also be a threat. A single catastrophic event could possibly cause the extinction of this species. Six of 12 municipal and industrial facilities with wastewater discharge permits into the Croix River are within the reach containing Quadrula fragosa. Stream flow in the relevant stretch of the St. Croix River is influenced, in part, by a hydroelectric dam at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. The availability of suitable habitat is a major concern for the continued existence of this species. The species is vulnerable to stochastic events and, as a result of its small, fragmented distribution, has difficulty with recruitment. Changes in land use practices in the watershed are anticipated because the watershed is close to a major and growing metropolitan area. Recreational use in the area is heavy and potentially damaging (USFWS, 1997). Water diversion, anthropogenic water temperature changes, possible issues with the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), and drought and subsequent flooding are also threats.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Short-term Trend Comments: The species is thought to be extirpated from ten states where it previously occurred and there have been losses of populations within the five states it currently occurs. Based on data points from NatureServe and the Little River points, GeoCat calculated the historical range of the species at 1,097,273 km2 and its present range at 242,839 km2 (not counting locations where re-introduction attempts are taking place). Those calculations indicate there has been a 78% loss in the species? historical geographical range. Because there has been much confusion of this species with Quadrula quadrula (e.g., the Alabama record), a species of less conservation concern, it is difficult to fully assess the short-term trend for Q. fragosa. Nonetheless, it does appear that the species has declined rapidly and substantially in the past 25 years.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%
Long-term Trend Comments: The species is thought to be extirpated from ten states where it previously occurred and there have been losses of populations within the five states it currently occurs. Based on data points from NatureServe and the Little River points, GeoCat calculated the historical range of the species at 1,097,273 km2 and its present range at 242,839 km2 (not counting locations where re-introduction attempts are taking place). Those calculations indicate there has been a 78% loss in the species? historical geographical range. Because there has been much confusion of this species with Quadrula quadrula (e.g., the Alabama record), a species of less conservation concern, it is difficult to fully assess the long-term trend for Q. fragosa.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: The species is vulnerable to stochastic events and, as a result of its small, fragmented distribution, has difficulty with recruitment (USFWS, 1997).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The remnant population in the St. Croix River is found in riffles with clean gravel, sand, or rubble substrates and in clear water of high water quality but this may not reflect ideal habitat (USFWS, 1997).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine extent of existing populations and continue surveys for additional occurrences. Determine the level of connectivity of the Arkansas populations. Monitor existing populations. Determine population sizes of the Little River, Oklahoma, and the Bourbeuse River, Missouri, populations.

Protection Needs: All populations should receive protection through acquisition, easement, registry, and working with local, state, and federal government agencies on issues relating to development, water quality, river designation, etc. 35 juveniles collected in lab from 20 channel catfish released to downstream most edge of range in St. Croix River, Wisconsin (Hove et al., 2002). As outlined by the recovery plan (1997): (1) preserve the St. Croix population, (2) improve understanding of biology and ecology, (3) increase the St. Croix population; (4) re-establish the population in its historic range; (5) determine reclassification and delisting

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The species was once extremely widespread (15 states historically). Currently, it is limited to 4-5 isolated populations (depending upon connectivity of the two Arkansas populations): the Little River in Oklahoma, the Saline and Ouachita Rivers in Arkansas, the Bourbeuse River in Missouri, and the St. Croix River bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. GeoCat calculated the historical range of the species at 1,097,273 km2 and its present range at 242,839 km2 (not counting locations where re-introduction attempts are taking place). Because of misidentifications (confusion with Quadrula quadrula), published records cannot be relied upon to accurately reflect the distribution of this species.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, IAextirpated, ILextirpated, INextirpated, KSextirpated, KYextirpated, MN, MO, OHextirpated, OK, SDextirpated, TN, WI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Jackson (01071)*
AR Ashley (05003), Bradley (05011), Calhoun (05013), Clark (05019), Cleveland (05025), Ouachita (05103), Sevier (05133)
KY Campbell (21037)*, Kenton (21117)*, Lyon (21143)*, Oldham (21185)*, Pendleton (21191)*, Trigg (21221)*
MN Blue Earth (27013), Carver (27019), Chisago (27025), Dakota (27037), Goodhue (27049)*, Hennepin (27053), Nicollet (27103), Ramsey (27123)*, Scott (27139), Sibley (27143), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163)
MO Franklin (29071)
OH Ross (39141)*
OK Le Flore (40079), McCurtain (40089), Pushmataha (40127)
SD Lincoln (46083)*, Union (46127)*, Yankton (46135)*
TN Hickman (47081)
WI Dunn (55033), Polk (55095), St. Croix (55109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Scioto (05060002)+*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+*, Licking (05100101)+*, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)*, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)*, Lower Wabash (05120113)*, Lower White (05120202)*, Harpeth (05130204)*, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+*, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+*, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)*, Lower Ohio (05140206)*
06 Guntersville Lake (06030001)+*, Upper Duck (06040002)*, Lower Duck (06040003)+
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+*, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)*, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+*, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)*, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Apple-Plum (07060005)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)*, Lake Dubay (07070002)*, Castle Rock (07070003)*, Baraboo (07070004)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104)*, Upper Cedar (07080201)*, Middle Cedar (07080205)*, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Upper Iowa (07080207)*, Middle Iowa (07080208)*, Lower Iowa (07080209)*, Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)*, South Raccoon (07100007)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)*, The Sny (07110004)*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)*, Upper Illinois (07120005)*, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Spoon (07130005)*, Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007)*, Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009)*, La Moine (07130010)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Bourbeuse (07140103)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Upper Ouachita (08040102)+, Little Missouri (08040103)+, Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201)+, Lower Saline (08040204)+
10 Lower James (10160011)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+*, Middle Kansas (10270102)*, Lower Big Blue (10270205)*, Lower Little Blue (10270207)*, Pomme De Terre (10290107)*, Lower Osage (10290111)*
11 Upper Walnut River (11030017)*, Lower Walnut River (11030018)*, Upper Verdigris (11070101)*, Fall (11070102)*, Upper Neosho (11070204)*, Middle Neosho (11070205)*, Muddy Boggy (11140103)*, Clear Boggy (11140104)*, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A freshwater mussel
General Description: Shell subcircular to pentagonal, solid, inflated; anterior end broadly rounded from dorsum to terminus of medial ridge; ventral margin between termini of medial and posterior ridges concave; posterio-ventral junction bluntly biangulate; posterior margin truncated, may be a slight concavity above the posterio-ventral biangulation; dorsal margin generally straight, concave lunule before beak; beak subcentral, elevated, relatively narrow, inclined anteriorly, sculpted by fine irregularly arched ridges and pustules; anterior third of shell surface generally lacks pustules, termini of annual growth increments elevated; maximum shell inflation along a medial ridge, sculpted by a narrow row of medium-sized pustules; medial and posterior ridges separated by a narrow sulcus; posterior ridge relatively low, bluntly angular, sculpted by a single row of prominent, widely spaced pustules; posterior slope concave, broad, expanded into moderately-developed wing, transversed by relatively heavy costations curved posterio-dorsally, a faint radial ridge and sulcus posterior to posterior ridge; periostracum with a cloth-like texture, greenish to brown, occasionly with wide, indistinct green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth heavy, serrated, triangular, double in left valve, single in right but with lamellar denticle adjacent to contiguous sulci; interdentum short, moderately wide; lateral teeth rather lamellar, roughened with striations, double in left valve, single in right but accessary lamella may develop ventrally; anterior muscle scars distinct, rather small, impressed, smooth; pallial line impressed, lighter posteriorly; posterior muscle scars lightly impressed, confluent; beak cavaties deep, compressed; nacre white, somewhat iridescent posteriorly.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species is quite similar to and has often been confused with Quadrula quadrula. In outline, Q. fragosa more resembles the shape of Q. nodulata. With respect to Q. quadrula, Q. fragosa is more rounded and pentagonal in outline, the medial sulcus is narrower and more centrally positioned, the beak is narrower and appears more elevated, beak sculpture is finer and less developed, and the posterior slope is broader and more alate. The costations across the posterior slope are relatively thick, fairly smooth, and well-separated. In Q. quadrula, costations are more closely packed and tend to be composed of small pustules. Additionally, Q. quadrula is more quadrate in appearance, tends to be posteriorly elongated, has a yellowish and shiny periostracum, and may be highly rayed. Height: 84mm.
Reproduction Comments: Heath et al. (2000) observed winged mapleleaf in the St. Croix River for 3 years before they described it as a late season, short-term (~5 weeks) brooder that typically released its glochidia as water temperature decreased to ~15 C in early autumn. Most other Quadrula species are reported to brood and release glochidia over longer periods during spring and summer (Oesch, 1995; Heath et al., 2000). Steingraeber et al. (2007) provided evidence for a thermal cue (17-20 C) that presumably is needed to trigger peak juvenile excystment with glochidial metamorphosis time ranging from 28 to 37 d at constant 19C, 70 d in varied 12-19C, and 260-262 d in simulated natural thermal 0-21C. Therefore, the winged mapleleaf may be a host overwintering mussel (Watters and O'Dee, 2000) throughout much of its range. The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, may be a suitable glochidial host (Hove et. al., 2000; 2001). Recently, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, has been confirmed as the host fish for this species (Schwebach et al., 2003). Steingraeber et al. (2004; 2007) have confirmed blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as suitable fish hosts, but blue catfish are a more prolific host. Oetker et al. (2005) also successfully reared this species on channel catfish.
Ecology Comments: Other than what was listed by Baker (1928) and the above speculation on habitat, nothing is known of this species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: This species is probably rather sessile with only limited movement through the substrate. Passive downstream movement may occur when mussels are displaced from the substrate during flooods. Major dispersal occurs while glochidia are encysted on their hosts.
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species appears to have inhabited medium-sized and large rivers. Baker (1928) lists its habitat as "mud bottom in water 2m or more in depth". Locality records indicate that it also inhabited riffle areas with substantially shallower water depths and substrates ranging from sand and gravel to mixture including some cobble and boulder sized particles. The remnant population in the St. Croix River is found in riffles with clean gravel, sand, or rubble substrates and in clear water of high water quality but this may not reflect ideal habitat (USFWS, 1997). Information on substrate, flow, current, sediment, temperature, oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity, and toxics in the St. Croix River can be found in USFWS (1997).
Adult Food Habits: Detritivore
Immature Food Habits: Parasitic
Food Comments: Larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels generally are parasitic on fish and display varying degrees of host specificity. No specific trophic studies have been conducted on this species. General literature claims that mussels are filter-feeders that remove phytoplankton from the water column. These assumptions are based on casual observations on mussels in situ and a few examinations of rectal contents. Baker (1928) speculated that detritus was the primary energy source. This has been substantiated by James (1987) and correlates well with observed microhabitat utilization. This suggests that mussels may occupy a variety of guilds such as postulated for the Sphaeriidae (see Lopez and Holopaien, 1987; Gordon and Layzer, 1989).
Phenology Comments: Glochidia brood in September and October.
Length: 10.2 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: This species was designated as U.S. federally endangered in 1991 (USFWS, 1991) and a recovery plan (USFWS, 1997) was drafted and reintroduction efforts are underway (Hove et al., 2002; 2003). Dams on the St. Croix River are currently managed for maximum protection of the species (USFWS, 1997). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has developed and is apparently instigating the provisions of a recovery plan (USFWS, 1997). Portions of the river have been incorporated into the St. Croix National Scenic River. However, this does not protect occurrences from events in the rest of the watershed and outside the boundaries of the scenic river designation.
Biological Research Needs: Habitat preferences and environmental tolerances, particularly tolerance to various pollutants and siltation, need to be determined. Research on reproductive biology, including glochidial host identification are critical.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Smith-Patten, B.D. (2018, in part); Cordeiro, J. (2006); Gordon, M. 1992; Whittaker J. C. 1994
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Jun2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, F. C. 1928.  The fresh water mollusca of Wisconsin:  part II: Pelecypoda.  Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin No. 70, Part II.  University of Wisconsin, Madison.  495 pp.

  • Baker, F.C. 1928b. The freshwater Mollusca of Wisconsin: Part II. Pelecypoda. Bulletin of the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, University of Wisconsin, 70(2): 1-495.

  • Bleam, D.E., C.H. Cope, K.J. Couch, D.A. Distler. 1998. The winged mapleleaf Quadrula fragosa (Conrad 1835) in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 101(1-2): 35-38.

  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1992. Field Guide to Freshwater Mussels of the Midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 5, Illinois. 194 pp.

  • Doolittle, T. C. J. 1987. The qualitative analysis, relative abundance, and distribution of freshwater unionid mussels in the St. Croix and Namekagon rivers. Draft final report to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 21 pp.

  • Doolittle, T. C. J. 1988. Distribution and relative abundance of freshwater mussels in the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resouces. Unpaged.

  • Doolittle, Thomas C. J. 1987. The Qualitative Analysis, Relative Abundance, and Distribution of Freshwater Unionid Mussels in the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. Funded by the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Nongame Research Program. Results in published report.

  • Gordon, M.E. and J.B. Layzer. 1989. Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) of the Cumberland River review of life histories and ecological relationships. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report, 89(15): 1-99.

  • Heath, D. J., R. L. Benjamin, M. B. Endris, R. L. Kenyon, and M. C. Hove. 2001. Determination of basic reproductive characteristics of the Winged Mapleleaf (Quadrula fragosa) relevant to recovery. Job 1: determination of gravidity period. Ellipsaria 3(1):18-19.

  • Heath, D.J., R.L. Benjamin, M.B. Endris, R.L. Kenyon and M.C. Hove. 2000. Determination of basic reproductive characteristics of the winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa) relevant to recovery. Job 1: Determination of gravidity period. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. 17 pp.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1997. Distributional checklist and status of Illinois freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionacea). Pages 129-145 in: K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, C.A. Mayer, and T.J. Naimo (eds.) Conservation and management of freshwater mussels II: initiatives for the future. Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, October 1995, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois.

  • Galbraith, H.S., D.E. Spooner, and C.C. Vaughn. 2008. Status of rare and endangered freshwater mussels in southeastern Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist, 53(1): 45-50.

  • Harris, J.L., P.J. Rust, A.C. Christian, W.R. Posey II, C.L. Davidson, and G.L. Harp. 1997. Revised status of rare and endangered Unionacea (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 51: 66-89.

  • Hoke, E. 2004. The freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Little Blue River drainage of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 29: 7-24.

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  • Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: St. Paul, Minnesota. 144 pp.

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