Puma concolor browni - (Merriam, 1903)
Yuma Mountain Lion
Synonym(s): Felis concolor browni
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100723
Element Code: AMAJH04013
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Carnivores
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Puma
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B81HAL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Puma concolor browni
Taxonomic Comments: See Merriam (1903) for the original description of subspecies browni, which was based only on one skull. Grinnell (1914) believed "that it is probable that there is really less to distinguish browni from [subspecies] aztecus than the original decription of the former indicates. However, our material proves that there is a well-marked desert form of the cougar" [compared to lions from western California]. According to Young and Goldman (1946), closely allied to subspecies californica, with which it intergrades along the mountain barrier west of the desert area in upper and lower California. A specimen from the Hualpai Mountains area in central western Arizona shows gradation toward azteca (Young and Goldman 1946). The validity of this subspecies probably should be regarded as questionable. Analysis of mtDNA by Culver et al. (2000) indicated that cougars across North America are genetically homogeneous in overall variation relative to central and South American populations.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1T2Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jun2000
Global Status Last Changed: 12Jun2000
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range now mostly confined to vicinity of the Colorado River valley of Arizona-California-Mexico; rarely detected; abundance and population trend are unknown.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southwestern Arizona (south of the Colorado River), southeastern California, northeastern Baja California, and northwestern Sonora (Young and Goldman 1946). Specific historic localities include: Hualpai Mountains, including Cottonwood Canyon, Mohave County, Arizona; Burro Creek, Neal Mesa, Mohave County, Arizona; Colorado River, 20 mi. N Picacho, Yuma County, Arizona; Colorado River, 12 mi. below Yuma, Yuma County, Arizona (type locality); vic. Squaw Creek, Kofa Mountains, 50 mi. NE Yuma, Yuma County, Arizona; 6 mi. NW Catavina, Baja California; 18 mi. S Tres Pozos, Baja California (Hall 1981, Hoffmeister 1986). From 1969 to the mid-1980s, there were a few dozen records of tracks and sightings, the majority from along the Colorado River (Duke et al. 1987).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Conversion of riparian habitats to urban and agricultural lands has significantly reduced available habitat (Ohmart et al. 1988).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southwestern Arizona (south of the Colorado River), southeastern California, northeastern Baja California, and northwestern Sonora (Young and Goldman 1946). Specific historic localities include: Hualpai Mountains, including Cottonwood Canyon, Mohave County, Arizona; Burro Creek, Neal Mesa, Mohave County, Arizona; Colorado River, 20 mi. N Picacho, Yuma County, Arizona; Colorado River, 12 mi. below Yuma, Yuma County, Arizona (type locality); vic. Squaw Creek, Kofa Mountains, 50 mi. NE Yuma, Yuma County, Arizona; 6 mi. NW Catavina, Baja California; 18 mi. S Tres Pozos, Baja California (Hall 1981, Hoffmeister 1986). From 1969 to the mid-1980s, there were a few dozen records of tracks and sightings, the majority from along the Colorado River (Duke et al. 1987).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Imperial (06025)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A large cat with an elongate body, powerful limbs, small head, short face, short rounded ears, and long neck and tail; dorsum light tawny to dark cinnamon-buff, venter whitish to pinkish-buff; young are buffy with dark spots; color of upperparts is most intense midorsally; sides of muzzle and backs of ears are black, though black on muzzle is rather inconspicuous; end of tail is dark brown or blackish; a few adult males ranged from 193-224 cm in total length (Hoffmeister 1986, Young and Goldman 1946, Grinnell 1914).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Based on the relatively few specimens available for study, differs from subspecies AZTECA in having paler coloration, shorter and thinner pelage, and a narrower skull; differs from subspecies KAIBABENSIS in being of smaller size and having a narrower skull and shorter hair; differs from subspecies CALIFORNICA in being paler, having shorter and thinner pelage, and having slightly different cranial characteristics; differs from very similar subspecies IMPROCERA in slightly different cranial characteristics (Hoffmeister 1986, Young and Goldman 1946).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Desert plains and low mountains of the Colorado River valley (Young and Goldman 1946). Riparian habitats along the Colorado River appear to be essential; cottonwood-willow gallery forests may have been important. Surrounding desert probably is relative unimportant. Mountain ranges supporting oak-conifer woodland probably support an adequate prey base (Ohmart et al. 1988). Records of tracks and sightings from 1969 to the mid-1980s were mainly from along the Colorado River (Duke et al. 1987).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore
Food Comments: Scat analyses by Cashman et al. (1992) revealed that ungulates (mule deer, collared peccary, cattle, and bighorn sheep) were the primary prey in southwestern Arizona; diet included also various other mammals and (rarely) large lizards.Grinnell (1914) mentioned lions killing hogs along the Colorado River in the early 1900s.
Length: 200 centimeters
Weight: 77000 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Mar1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Cashman, J. L., M. Peirce, and P. R. Krausman. 1992. Diets of mountain lions in southwestern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 37:324-326.

  • Culver, M., W. E. Johnson, J. Pecon-Slattery, and S. J. O'Brien. 2000. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (PUMA CONCOLOR). Journal of Heredity 91:186-197.

  • Duke, R. R., et al. 1987. Yuma puma (FELIS CONCOLOR BROWNI) feasibility report population status survey. U.S. Bur. Rec. Rept., Lower Colo. Reg., Boulder City, Nevada.

  • Grinnell, J. 1914. An account of the mammals and birds of the lower Colorado valley, with especial reference to the distributional problems presented. Univ. California Publication Zoology 12:51-294.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hansen, K. 1992. Cougar: the American lion. Northland Publising Company, Flagstaff, Arizona. xiii + 129 pp.

  • Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department. 602 pp.

  • Merriam, C. H. 1903. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16:73.

  • Ohmart, R. D., B. W. Anderson, and W. C. Hunter. 1988. The ecology of the lower Colorado River from Davis Dam to the Mexico-United States international boundary: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 85(7.19). xvi + 296 pp.

  • Young, S. P. and E. A. Goldman. 1946. The Puma, mysterious American cat. Part I (by Young). History, life habits, economic status, and control. Part II (by Goldman). Classification of the races of the puma. American Wildlife Institute (also Dover Publ., Inc., New York). 358 PP.

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