Pterodroma hasitata - (Kuhl, 1820)
Black-capped Petrel
Other Common Names: Diabiotim
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pterodroma hasitata (Kuhl, 1820) (TSN 174567)
French Common Names: Pétrel diablotin
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102546
Element Code: ABNDB03010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Procellariiformes Procellariidae Pterodroma
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pterodroma hasitata
Taxonomic Comments: Regarded as conspecific with P. cahow, P. phaeopygia, P. baraui, and P. externa by some authors (AOU 1998). Possibly extinct form that bred on Jamaica may be distinct species, P. caribbaea (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Feb2014
Global Status Last Changed: 23Jun2000
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small breeding range in the West Indies; nesting apparently is now restricted to Hispaniola and possibly Cuba, Dominica and Martinique; declines and extirpations are attributed to predation by introduced mammals and human exploitation for food. Dogs, cats, and mongooses continue to increase around the breeding colonies in Haiti, where deforestation further threatens colonies.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNRN (03Oct2003)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNRN), Georgia (SNRN), North Carolina (S1N), South Carolina (SNRN)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PT: Proposed threatened (09Oct2018)
IUCN Red List Category: EN - Endangered

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range includes Hispaniola, eastern Cuba, Jamaica (formerly; but see Taxonomy Comments), Guadeloupe (extirpated), Dominica (probable), and possibly Martinique (Collar et al. 1992; van Halewyn and Norton 1984). Confirmed colonies are restricted to Hispaniola (Massif de la Selle and Massif de la Hotte, Haiti; and Loma de Toro, Dominican Republic). Ranges at sea in the Caribbean region and western Atlantic Ocean from about the Tropic of Cancer to eastern Brazil, north to waters off the southeastern United States where the species is far from rare (Collar et al. 1992).

Area of Occupancy: 126 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Upper limit of 7,000,000 square kilometers provided by BirdLife International (2014)

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Precise breeding distribution poorly known; In 2012 there are only 13 known breeding colonies. While historically this species had breeding colonies throughout the Caribbean, current breeding populations are known only on the island of Hispaniola and possibliy Dominica and Martinique (Birdlife International, 2014).

Population Size: 1000 - 10,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Very few colonies known, and numbers of breeding birds in these colonies poorly known, but generally estimated to be 50 or more pairs per colony . However, recent observations at sea off the southeastern U. S. coast have indicated a larger population than would be predicted by known or probable breeding sites, with as many as 65 birds seen in one day. The latest estimates are between 600 - 2000 pairs, with the lower end of the range more likely (Goetz, et. al. 2012).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: The only protected breeding location is Loma del Toro in the Dominican Republic. The two other major breeding sites are parks but have open access with medium to extremely high threats of habitat loss (Goetz, et. al. 2012).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Declines and extirpations are attributed to predation by introduced mongooses, opossums (Dominica), rats, and domestic animals; and to human exploitation for food (Collar et al. 1992). Mongooses, dogs, and cats are continuing to become more common around the known colonies in Haiti. In recent decades, the breeding sites in Haiti have been further threatened by the destruction of the surrounding montane forests (Collar et al. 1992). The remnant colony on Guadeloupe may have been dealt its final blow by a major earthquake in 1847 (Collar et al. 1992). Goetz, et. al. (2012) adds collisions with communication towers and climate change effects. Potential and emerging threats at sea include impacts from fisheries by by-catch, colisions with wind farm structures and oil platforms, and oil spills.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Population numbers are difficult to estimate. Most everyone agrees the population is declining. An estimate of 2,000 - 25,000 pairs in 1984 by Halewyn and Norton compares with 600 - 2000 pairs by Lee in 2000. Taking the approximate midpoint of 10,000 pairs in 1984 compared with 2000 (optimistic) in 2000 represents an 80% decline in number

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Formerly abundant; declined precipitously in the 19th century. Several breeding colonies have been extirpated, and numbers have probably declined at remaining colonies in the last 50 years (Collar et al. 1992).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly to moderately vulnerable.
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Colonies are highly susceptible to impact by introduced mammalian predators, with other petrel species extirpation being attributed to such predators (Goetz, et. al. 2012).

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Remote islands free from human influences and introduced predators is an increasingly scarce commodity. The species nest on slopes and cliff faces in open-canopy highland forests with rock crevices or rock talus for the birds to excavate their nest burrows (Goetz, et. al. 2012).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: More precise breeding population estimates are needed. Breeding sites need to be verified and inventoried; this task is made difficult by the rugged terrain and thick forests surrounding the colonies.

Protection Needs: See Collar et al. (1992) for information on conservation needs in different areas. Develop methods to remove introduced predators in order to protect the species at its nesting grounds.

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)) Breeding range includes Hispaniola, eastern Cuba, Jamaica (formerly; but see Taxonomy Comments), Guadeloupe (extirpated), Dominica (probable), and possibly Martinique (Collar et al. 1992; van Halewyn and Norton 1984). Confirmed colonies are restricted to Hispaniola (Massif de la Selle and Massif de la Hotte, Haiti; and Loma de Toro, Dominican Republic). Ranges at sea in the Caribbean region and western Atlantic Ocean from about the Tropic of Cancer to eastern Brazil, north to waters off the southeastern United States where the species is far from rare (Collar et al. 1992).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA, NC, SC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A 41-cm-long seabird (petrel).
Reproduction Comments: Breeding season extends from early November to mid-May (peak late December-February); eggs laid in January-February; clutch size is 1 (Collar et al. 1992).
Ecology Comments: Usually solitary at sea (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates between breeding and nonbreeding habitats.
Marine Habitat(s): Pelagic
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Woodland - Hardwood
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Pelagic. Warm oceanic waters, generally off the continental shelf (see Collar et al. 1992 for further details). Probably feeds in areas of turbulence and upwellings caused by sea ridges and the continental shelf break (Collar et al. 1992). Eggs are laid in burrows on mountain summits (AOU 1983), in soils or crevices of steep forested mountain cliffs (mostly at 1500-2000 m elevation in Haiti).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Little is known about the food of this species (Collar et al. 1992). Eats largely squids taken in bill from surface of water (Terres 1980). Feeds on fishes, shrimps (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Phenology Comments: Probably nocturnal when nesting.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 41 centimeters
Weight: 278 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Assess the potential impact of collisions with communication towers and wind mill farms on this species
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Seabirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map foraging areas as separate polygons if they are separated from the breeding colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Where colonies are closer than 5 kilometers, separate occurrences may be created if research shows little genetic mixing between colonies.
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting and foraging areas, but occurrence separations are based on nesting areas (i.e., distance between nesting areas, regardless of foraging locations). Hence, different occurrences may overlap.

Occurrences are not based on discrete populations or metapopulations. Instead, the separation distance is arbitrarily small such that occurrences are of of practical size for data management purposes.

Evidence from a number of species of seabirds indicates that even though the 'home ranges' of individual nesting seabirds may be immense when foraging trips are taken into account, little movement or feeding overlap may occur between nearby colonies. For example, Thick-billed Murres may commute up to 170 kilometers one way on a feeding trip from the colony, but birds from a colony only 8 kilometers away may forage in a completely different direction; even birds from different sub-colonies only 1.5 kilometers apart mostly fed in completely separate areas (Gaston and Hipfner 2000).

Most seabirds have strong breeding site fidelity; e.g., Thick-billed Murres (Gaston and Hipfner 2000, Gaston et al. 1994), Gray-backed Tern (Mostello et al. 2000), Red-footed Booby (Schreiber et al. 1996).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Somewhat arbitrary, but generally very conservative for this group, many members of which travel long distances to foraging grounds.
Date: 20Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Feeding area, Loafing site, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds (including historical), including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 25 birds regularly occur for more than 20 days per year would be deemed EOs; the number of individuals may be reduced for very rare species. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; defined this small to aid in conservation planning. Sites more than 10 kilometers apart may be joined as one occurrence if research shows that predominantly the same individuals are using both sites.
Date: 07Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Feb2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cannings, S.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Sep1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • BirdLife International. (2013-2014). IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on various dates in 2013 and 2014. http://www.birdlife.org/

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Carboneras, C. 1992a. Family Procellariidae (petrels and shearwaters). Pages 216-257 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (Eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

  • Carter, M., C. Hunter, D. Pashley, and D. Petit. 1998. The Watch List. Bird Conservation, Summer 1998:10.

  • Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996: For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.

  • Collar, N. J., L. P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroño-Nieto, L. G. Naranjo, T. A. Parker III, and D. C. Wege. 1992. Threatened Birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. 3rd edition, Part 2. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK.

  • Gaston, A. J., and J. M. Hipfner. 2000. Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia). No. 497 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Gaston, A. J., et al. 1994. Population parameters of thick-billed murres at Coats Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Condor 96:935-948.

  • Goetz, J.E., J. H. Norris, and J.A. Wheeler. 2012.  Conservation Action Plan for the Black-capped Petrel (Pterodroma hasitata). International Black-capped Petrel Conservation Group. http://www.fws.gov/birds/waterbirds/petrel

  • Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds: An identification guide. Croom Helm, London, England. 448 pp.

  • Lee, D. S. 2000. Status of and conservation priorities for Black-capped Petrels in the West Indies. Pages 11-18 in E. A. Schreiber and D. S. Lee (editors) Status and Conservation of West Indian Seabirds. Society of Caribbean Ornithology Special Publication 1, Ruston, Louisiana, USA.

  • Mostello, C. S., N. A. Palaia, and R. B. Clapp. 2000. Gray-backed Tern (Sterna lunata). No. 525 in A. Poole and F. Gill (editors). The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28 pp.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 511 pp.

  • Schreiber, E. A., R. W. Schreiber, and G. A. Schenk. 1996. Red-footed Booby (Sula sula). No. 241 in A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The Amerian Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 24 pp.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Warham, J. 1991 (also listed as 1990). The petrels: their ecology and breeding systems. Academic Press. viii + 440 pp.

  • van Halewyn, R., and R. L. Norton. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pages 169-222 in Croxall et al., eds. Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2

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