Pseudosuccinea columella - (Say, 1817)
Mimic Lymnaea
Other English Common Names: Mimic Lymnaea Snail
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pseudosuccinea columella (Say, 1817) (TSN 76529)
French Common Names: lymnée auriforme américaine
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.110286
Element Code: IMGASL3010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Basommatophora Lymnaeidae Pseudosuccinea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pseudosuccinea columella
Taxonomic Comments: There is ongoing debate as to whether this species should be placed in the genus Stagnicola or Stagnicola retained as a subgenus of the genus Lymnaea.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Dec2011
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep1999
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species widely distributed throughout its native eastern North American range and has no major threats impacting its survival. This species demonstrates attributes that make it a successful invasive species, having colonised throughout a range of regions and being described as the "most successful colonist" and possibly the most widely distributed freshwater snail species in the world with high invasive potential.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (25Jan2013)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Florida (S5), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), New Jersey (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4?), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (S5?), Texas (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (SU), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNR), New Brunswick (SNR), Nova Scotia (SNR), Ontario (S4), Quebec (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species occurs almost all over the Neotropical region from Mexico to Brazil as well as much of Cuba (Pointier et al., 2005) and has been introduced around the world. This common Nearctic species has been introduced in Europe, New Zealand and different regions of Africa. In Central Europe it is known in Austria, Hungary and Romania; as well as Greece (AnimalBase), Latvia, and the Czech Republic (Horsak et al., 2010). In the Mediterranean it has been recorded from France, Italy, Spain (Balearic Islands, Mainland) and Egypt (Brown, 1994) where it is thought to have been introduced in 1944 (Mandahl-Barth, 1968). It has also invaded South Africa (Schutte and Frank; 1964, De Kock et al., 1989), Australia (Boray et al., 1982) and New Zealand (Winterbourn 1973). Hubendick (1951) lists range as covering the eastern United States with additional records from Mexico, Central America, and Cuba. In North America it is common in eastern North America and is known from Nova Scotia and Quebec west to Manitoba, Minnesota and eastern Kansas, south to central Texas and Florida (Burch, 1989). Hubendick (1951) includes the eastern United States with additional records from Mexico, Middle America, and Cuba. Subspecies championi occurs from central Mexico south to Panama (Thompson, 2008).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Clench and Turner (1956) list the Flint (Decatur and Seminole Cos., Georgia), Chattahoochee (Troup Co., Georgia and Houston Co., Alabama), and Apalachicola (Calhoun Co., Florida) River drainages. In Georgia (Dillon et al., 2006), North Carolina (Dillon et al., 2006), and South Carolina (Dillon and Stewart, 2003), this species is ubiquitous. In Alabama, it is found throughout the state and is common (Mirarchi, 2004). In the Cuyahoga Valley National Park (between Cleveland and Akron, Ohio), this species was recently found in three ponds and a ackwater area in Adam Run part of the mainstem in the park (Smith et al., 2002). In Indiana, Pyron et al. (2008) found it in 16 of 123 sites surveyed across the state compared to Goodrich and van der Schalie (1944) who reported it present only in northern Indiana counties. Dillon and Benfield (1982) documented this species in the New River in southwestern Virginia and Northwestern North Carolina. In Pennsylvania, it occurs in the Delaware, Ohio and Susquehanna basins (Evans and Ray, 2010). Dawley (1965) lists North Carolina distribution as across the entire state. In Missouri, it is distributed in Lowland, Ozark (mainly southeast division), and Prairie (Mississippi and Lower Missouri divisions) in Boone, Butler, Carter, Dunklin, Henry, Jackson, McDonald, Mississippi, Montgomery, New Madrid, Oregon, Pike, Polk, Ralls, Reynolds, Ripley, St. Charles, Scott, Shannon, Stoddard, Warren, Wayne Cos. (Wu et al., 1997). It occurs in the White River drainage, Arkansas, below Beaver Reservoir dam, Carrol Co. (Gordon, 1982). Minton et al. (2008) documented it in the Bayou Bartholomew drainage in Arkansas; where it was the most abundant species. It occurs in ponds and creeks and the Savannah River on property of the Savannah River Power Plant, Aiken, South Carolina (Wood, 1982). In Kentucky it has been documented in the Green River (creek in Casey Co., pond in Mason Co., Rockhouse Slough) drainage (Branson and Batch, 1983); as well as the Kentucky (pond in Madison Co.) and Licking (Licking River) (see also Rosewater, 1959) River drainages (Branson and Batch, 1981). Branson and Batch (1987) documented it in Kentucky in the Cumberland (Bert T. Combs Pond), Licking (Slate Creek, Licking River), Green (Roundabout Swamp), and Kentucky (West Fork Otter Creek) drainages but indicate it probably occurs statewide. Blair and Sickel (1986) documented it in 1 of 44 sites (Duncan Lake in Kentucky) surveyed in Land Between the Lakes (national recreation area between Cumberland River (Lake Berkeley) and Tennessee River (Kentucky Lake)) in Kentucky and Tennessee. Subspecies championi occurs in Nicaragua in Polvon, Chontales; in Mexico in a lake near Uruapan in Michoacan and in Tepic, Nayarit; and Panama in Bigabo (Thompson, 2008). Branson (1966) lists one site each in the Spring River basin of Kansas and Missouri.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: There are no threats to this species.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs almost all over the Neotropical region from Mexico to Brazil as well as much of Cuba (Pointier et al., 2005) and has been introduced around the world. This common Nearctic species has been introduced in Europe, New Zealand and different regions of Africa. In Central Europe it is known in Austria, Hungary and Romania; as well as Greece (AnimalBase), Latvia, and the Czech Republic (Horsak et al., 2010). In the Mediterranean it has been recorded from France, Italy, Spain (Balearic Islands, Mainland) and Egypt (Brown, 1994) where it is thought to have been introduced in 1944 (Mandahl-Barth, 1968). It has also invaded South Africa (Schutte and Frank; 1964, De Kock et al., 1989), Australia (Boray et al., 1982) and New Zealand (Winterbourn 1973). Hubendick (1951) lists range as covering the eastern United States with additional records from Mexico, Central America, and Cuba. In North America it is common in eastern North America and is known from Nova Scotia and Quebec west to Manitoba, Minnesota and eastern Kansas, south to central Texas and Florida (Burch, 1989). Hubendick (1951) includes the eastern United States with additional records from Mexico, Middle America, and Cuba. Subspecies championi occurs from central Mexico south to Panama (Thompson, 2008).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, CAexotic, CT, FL, GA, HIexotic, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MTexotic, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, ORexotic, PA, RI, SCexotic, TN, TX, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WYexotic
Canada BCexotic, MB, NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species is found in streams and rivers of all sizes, often marginally (Mirarchi, 2004).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Unlike most freshwater mussels [possibly excepting Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) (see Isley, 1914)], some freshwater pulmonates are able to survive in intermittent streams and ponds by settling into sediment on the bottom and aestivating in otherwise dry or frozen conditions. Some species (e.g. Stagnicola spp.) may form a sheet of mucus just within the aperture called an epiphragm that effectively seals the snail from harsh external conditions (Jokinen, 1978; Brown, 1991). For ephemeral or intermittent water species, it may be particularly difficult to define the limits of an occurrence. Movement out of the water for the purposes of aestivation is on the order of cm (Jokinen, 1978), not m or km, so this behavior should not affect separation distance between occurrences. Species that may be found in intermittent waters include: Aplexa elongata, Fossaria bulimoides, F. dalli, F. modicella, F. obrussa, F. parva, Gyraulus circumstriatus, G. crista, G. parvus, Laevapex fuscus, Physa vernalis, Physella gyrina, Planorbella campestris, Planorbula armigera, Stagnicola caperata, S. elodes, S. exilis.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are largely based on permanent hydrological discontinuity between water bodies, with distances of 30 meters or greater between maximum high water marks constituting a separation barrier. Additional barriers are chemical and/or physical and include any connecting water body (regardless of size) with one or more of the following on a permanent basis: no dissolved calcium content, acidity greater than pH 5, lack of dissolved oxygen, extremely high salinity such as that found in saline lakes and brine waters, or temperature greater than 45

An additional physical barrier, particularly for flowing water, is presence of upland habitat between water connections. High waterfalls and anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams are barriers as they limit movement in an upstream direction.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave species (mostly prosobranchs) may occur near entrances to very deep in cave systems with specimens occurring on the undersides of small stones in riffle areas (Hershler et al., 1990). For cave species, separation distance cannot often be determined accurately due to varying degrees of accessibility to occupied cave habitat. In these instances, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are each considered separately. Caves with multiple entrances and passages known to be connected, but with connecting passages too small or unsafe for human entry shall be treated as a single element occurrence when the non-negotiable portion of the cave is thought to be less than approximately 300 m linear length. Species known to occur in caves include: Amnicola cora, Antrobia spp., Antrobis spp., Antroselates spp., Dasyscias spp., Fontigens aldrichi, F. antroecetes, F. bottimeri, F. morrisoni, F. nickliniana, F. orolibas, F. prosperpina, F. tartarea, F. turritella, Holsingeria spp., Phreatodrobia spp., Stygopyrgus spp.
Separation Justification: Freshwater snails have adapted to most North American habitats including permanent standing, intermittent, and flowing waters. As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia). Pulmonates adapt better to changing temperature and oxygen concentration, resist desiccation better (use pulmonary respiration, store excreted nitrogen as urea, aestivate), and have faster crawling rates (including righting response and actual movement rate) than prosobranchs (Brown et al., 1998). Some species are more tolerant to adverse habitat conditions such as high pollution levels (e.g. Physella spp.), high altitude [e.g. Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930)], underground cave pools and springs (e.g. Fontigens spp., Phreatodrobia spp.) and hot springs (e.g. Pyrgulopsis spp.).

Precise geographic distribution of many American freshwater snails is not known but presumably reflects past geological, geographic, and climatic change (Smith, 1989). Movements between isolated or inaccessible portions of water bodies is possible but dependent on outside, passive processes (e.g. rafting, periodic flooding, transport by vertebrates, introduction by humans). Long-distance dispersal is generally not considered when assigning separation distances as otherwise impracticably large separation distances would result.

Several factors contribute to limiting freshwater snail distribution but none apply across diverse habitats or taxa. Approximately 95% of all freshwater gastropods are restricted to waters with calcium concentrations greater than 3 mg/liter (Brown, 1991; for exceptions see Jokinen, 1983). Calcium uptake for shell construction requires energy expenditure (active transport) when calcium concentration is low, but is passive at higher concentrations (Greenaway, 1971). Typically, no known biotic or abiotic factors consistently limit the abundance or distribution of freshwater gastropods among sites (DeVries et al., 2003). At specific localities, limiting factors may include hardness, acidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, high temperature, and food availability as associated with depth (Smith, 1989). Most species and the largest populations occur in hard, alkaline waters with normal range 20-180 ppm (Shoup, 1943; Harman, 1974). Snails are uncommon in habitats with surface acidity greater than pH 5 (see also Jokinen, 1983). Dissolved oxygen limits diversity so severely polluted waters (oxygen consumed by algae blooms) are often devoid of freshwater snails excepting pollution tolerant species. Because pulmonates can utilize atmospheric oxygen, they can exist under anaerobic conditions for longer time periods (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974; McMahon, 1983). High salinity is limiting to freshwater gastropods and inland saline lakes generally lack an associated snail fauna. Most species (excepting hot springs species) are intolerant of temperatures greater than 45ºC (McDonald, 1969; van der Schalie and Berry, 1973), a condition rarely occurring naturally. Lower temperatures are less limiting as snails have been found foraging in ice-covered waters (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974). Most species live in the shallows, (depths less than 3 m) where food abundance is greatest. As a result, drastic water fluctuations (draw-downs) may cause declines in snail populations (Hunt and Jones, 1972).

Any contiguous, occupied stretch of suitable flowing water habitat 2 km long or greater is considered an element occurrence. Two km was chosen based upon the limited active movement capabilities of most benthic invertebrates and observed home range of freshwater snails (J. Cordeiro, personal observation) as well as the relatively short life span of most species (five years for most stream species and two years for most pond species).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Prosobranchs: Neritidae: Neritina; Viviparidae: Campeloma, Cipangopaludina, Lioplax, Tulotoma, Viviparus; Ampullariidae: Marisa, Pomacea; Pleuroceridae: Elimia, Goniobasis, Gyrotoma, Io, Juga, Leptoxis, Lithasia, Pleurocera; Thiaridae: Melanoides, Tarebia; Bithyniidae: Bithynia; Hydrobiidae: Amnicola, Antrobia, Antrorbis, Antroselates, Aphaostracon, Balconorbis, Birgella, Cincinnatia, Clappia, Cochliopa, Cochliopina, Colligyrus, Dasyscias, Eremopyrgus, Floridiscrobs, Fluminicola, Fontelicella, Fontigens, Gillia, Heleobops, Holsingeria, Hoyia, Hydrobia, Lepyrium, Littoridina, Littoridinops, Lyogyrus, Notogillia, Onobops, Paludina, Phreatoceras, Phreatodrobia, Potamopyrgus, Pristinicola, Probythinella, Pyrgophorus, Pyrgulopsis, Rhapinema, Somatogyrus, Spilochlamys, Spurwinkia, Stiobia, Stygopyrgus, Taylorconcha, Texadina, Texapyrgu, Tryonia; Assimineidae: Assiminea; Pomatiopsidae: Pomatiopsis, Heterostropha; Valvatidae: Valvata
MORE IN BCD EO SPECS NOTES TAB

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Branson, B.A. 1966a. A partial biological survey of the Spring River drainage in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri. Part I, collecting sites, basic limnological data, and mollusks. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3/4): 242-293.

  • Branson, B.A. and D.L. Batch. 1981. Distributional records for gastropods and sphaeriid clams of the Kentucky and Licking Rivers and Tygarts Creek drainages, Kentucky. Brimleyana, 7: 137-144.

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  • Branson, B.A., D.L. Batch, and S.M. Call. 1987. Distribution of aquatic snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Kentucky with notes on fingernail clams (Mollusca: Sphaeriidae: Corbiculidae). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 48(3-4): 62-70.

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