Pseudemys concinna - (LeConte, 1830)
River Cooter
Other English Common Names: river cooter
Synonym(s): Chrysemys concinna
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pseudemys concinna (LeConte, 1830) (TSN 173805)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.802963
Element Code: ARAAD07020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Turtles
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Chelonia Cryptodeira Emydidae Pseudemys
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, J. A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, D. R. Frost, R. Highton, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Meylan, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, J. W. Sites, Jr., T. W. Taggart, S. G. Tilley, and D. B. Wake. 2000 [2001]. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular No. 29. 82 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B00CRO01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pseudemys concinna
Taxonomic Comments: This species sometimes has been placed in the genus Chrysemys.

Based on a morphometric analysis, Seidel (1994) recommended that floridana be regarded as a subspecies of P. concinna, with nominal P. c. suwanniensis and P. f. peninsularis recognized as full species. Seidel (1994) concluded that, due to clinal variation, nominal subspecies hieroglyphica, metteri, and mobilensis are unworthy of taxonomic recognition. Jackson (1995) presented an alternative taxonomic evaluation and strongly recommended that suwanniensis and peninsularis be retained as populations or subspecies of the distinct species P. concinna and P. floridana, respectively. See Seidel (1995) for a rebuttal. Seidel and Dreslik (1996) followed the taxonomic arrangement of Seidel (1994) except that suwanniensis was treated as a subspecies of P. concinna. Crother et al. (2000, 2003) and Crother (2008) included floridana as a subspecies of P. concinna and recognized P. peninsularis and P. suwanniensis as distinct species. Jackson (2006) continued to regard suwanniensis and peninsularis as populations or subspecies of the distinct species P. concinna and P. floridana, respectively. Further study is needed to resolve these taxonomic discrepancies.

Jackson et al. (2012) used mitochondrial DNA sequence data to address relationships within the genus Pseudemys. They found that Pseudemys forms a well-supported monophyletic group, but relationships among species were not well resolved. Most taxa did not appear to be monophyletic, with the exception of P. gorzugi (Rio Grande Cooter) and P. texana (Texas Cooter), suggesting the possibility of mitochondrial introgression as a result of historic or continuing hybrid swarms across the range of the genus, or the lack of resolution may reflect a pattern of recent speciation. The authors concluded that taxonomic relationships within Pseudemys remain complex and elusive and continue to warrant further work.

In the Atlantic drainages of the east-central United States, P. rubriventris is morphologically distinct from P. floridana and P. concinna, though in the southern part of its range P. rubriventris is somewhat morphologically convergent with floridana; this may reflect hybridization or convergent evolution (Seidel and Palmer 1991).

Pseudemys texana formerly was included in P. concinna (Ward 1984). Subspecies gorzugi, described by Ward (1984), was treated as a full species by Ernst (1990) and Seidel (1994).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Aug2007
Global Status Last Changed: 21Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Florida (S4), Georgia (S4S5), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SNR), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4), Maryland (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4), North Carolina (S5), Oklahoma (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range extends from Maryland to Florida Panhandle and northwestern peninsular Florida, west to eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Kansas, north to Missouri, Illinois (Dreslik 1998), Indiana, and the Ohio River valley of West Virginia, south to the Gulf Coast (Conant and Collins 1991, Seidel and Dreslik 1996).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline in north probably is due to degradation and loss of habitat (Herkert 1992).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Has declined in the north (Herkert 1992).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly to moderately vulnerable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from Maryland to Florida Panhandle and northwestern peninsular Florida, west to eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Kansas, north to Missouri, Illinois (Dreslik 1998), Indiana, and the Ohio River valley of West Virginia, south to the Gulf Coast (Conant and Collins 1991, Seidel and Dreslik 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe 2008


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001), Citrus (12017), Columbia (12023), Dixie (12029), Franklin (12037), Gadsden (12039), Gilchrist (12041), Hamilton (12047), Hillsborough (12057)*, Jackson (12063), Jefferson (12065), Lafayette (12067), Leon (12073), Levy (12075), Liberty (12077), Marion (12083), Sumter (12119), Suwannee (12121), Taylor (12123), Wakulla (12129)
GA Brooks (13027), Echols (13101), Lanier (13173), Lowndes (13185)
IL Alexander (17003), Franklin (17055)*, Gallatin (17059), Hardin (17069), Jefferson (17081)*, Massac (17127), White (17193)
IN Gibson (18051)*, Knox (18083)*, Martin (18101), Posey (18129)
OK Atoka (40005), Sequoyah (40135)
WV Mason (54053)*, Summers (54089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Alafia (03100204)+*, Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207)+, Withlacoochee (03100208)+, Waccasassa (03110101)+, Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102)+, Aucilla (03110103)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+, Alapaha (03110202)+, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Lower Suwannee (03110205)+, Santa Fe (03110206)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Lower Chattahoochee (03130004)+
05 Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+*, Middle New (05050002)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Lower Kanawha (05050008)+*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+*, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Lower White (05120202)+*, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Patoka (05120209)+*, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Saline (05140204)+*, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
07 Big Muddy (07140106)+*, Cache (07140108)+
11 Illinois (11110103)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Nesting occurs from late March to early August in northern Florida (Jackson 1994), begins generally in late May or June in the north. Clutch size averages usually between 12 and 20 (Iverson 2001). Individual females may lay multiple clutches each season. Eggs hatch in late summer or early fall. Hatchlings sometimes overwinter in the nest; these generally emerge in early spring (see Jackson 1994).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Streams with moderate current, abundant aquatic vegetation, basking sites, and rocky bottom; also lakes, ponds, oxbows, swamps, large ditches, lagoons, brackish tidal marshes; leaves water only to nest or bask (Ernst and Barbour 1972).

Eggs are laid in nests dug in sandy soil usually less than about 30 m from water (Ernst and Barbour 1972).

Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Apparently primarily herbivorous in some areas, eats mainly small animals in other areas (Ernst and Barbour 1972). Eats mostly aquatic species, also scavenges. Young omnivorous (Mount 1975). In the New River, West Virginia, adults ate eelgrass, elodea, and crayfishes (Buhlmann and Vaughan 1991). In a Florida spring, diet was plant matter (algae and native and exotic vascular plants), with animal matter ingested incidently or as carrion (Lagueux et al., 1995, J. Herpetol. 29:122-129).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: May be inactive in winter away from coastal areas (Mount 1975).
Length: 42 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Monitoring Requirements: See Lindeman (1997) for information on the use of spotting scope surveys to determine distribution and abundance.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Pseudemys Turtles (Cooters)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Occurrences should include known nesting areas and documented upland travel corridors, if any.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that turtles rarely if ever cross successfully; untraversable topography (e.g., cliff); urbanized area lacking aquatic or wetland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Separation distance along riverine corridors: 20 stream km. Separation distance for upland habitat: 1 km. Separation distance for other situations (e.g., mixture of upland and aquatic/wetland habitat): 5 km.
Separation Justification: Movements of most species have not been intensively studied, but available information indicates that maximum home range dimension frequently is about 1 km or less and that movements (other than nesting) occur primarily within aquatic/wetland habitats. Nesting typically occurs within 250 m of water.
In West Virginia, three males and one female P. concinna moved 574 m betwen two basking sites, and one male had a maximum observed distance traveled of 777 m (Buhlmann and Vaughan 1991). Nest sites usually are within 30 m of water (Ernst et al. 1994).
In South Carolina, 70 percent of 40 P. floridana that emigrated from a drought-impacted Carolina Bay traveled toward the nearest body of water, a beaver pond about 400 m away (Gibbons et al. 1983). In Florida, Marchand (1945) recorded cooter movements of usually a few hundred meters but up to 640 m or more. Also in Florida, Kramer (1995) determined that home range length in a spring run was up to 840 m (mean about 300 m, not including basking sites).
In a Florida spring run, home range length (including basking sites) of Pseudemys nelsoni was 10-990 m (mean 132 m in males, 207 m in females); in a lake, home range size was an order of magnitude larger (about 16-31 ha for total aquatic and terrestrial range) (Kramer 1995). Jackson and Walker (1997) recorded home range lengths of 200-600 m for P. c. suwanniensis in the nesting season.
Nesting sites of P. rubriventris may be 10-250 m from water (Ernst et al. 1994).
Despite these data, the high probability of long, undetected movements along riverine corridors suggests use of a separation distance of at least 20 km for suitable (aquatic/wetland) habitat. The nominal minimum of 1 km is used for upland habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Date: 23Apr2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Sep2010
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Nov2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Auburn University Museum of Natural History Reptile and Amphibian Collection, Auburn, Alabama. http://www.auburn.edu/academic/science_math/cosam/collections/reptiles_amphibians/index.htm

  • BUHLMANN, K. A. 1986. POPULATION AND HABITAT ECOLOGY OF THE RIVER COOTER (PSEUDEMYS CONCINA) IN THE NEW RIVER GORGE NATIONAL RIVER, WV. M.S. THESIS, VA POLYTECHNIC INST., BLACKSBURG. 88 PP.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Buhlmann, K. A., and M. R. Vaughan. 1991. Ecology of the turtle Pseudemys concinna in the New River, West Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 25:72-78.

  • CALDWELL, J.P. AND J.T. COLLINS. 1981. TURTLES IN KS.

  • COLLINS, J.T. 1982. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.EDUCA.SERIES NO.8.

  • CONANT, R. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OFEASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles. SSAR Herpetol. Review 22:42-43.

  • Conant, R. and J.T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of eastern and central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 450pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, J. A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, D. R. Frost, R. Highton, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Meylan, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, J. W. Sites, Jr., T. W. Taggart, S. G. Tilley, and D. B. Wake. 2000 [2001]. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Circular No. 29. 82 pp.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Dreslik, M. J. 1998. Current status and conservation of the river cooter (Pseudemys concinna) in southern Illinois. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3:135-137.

  • Dundee, H.E., and D.A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 300 pp.

  • Ernst, C. H. 1990. Pseudemys gorzugi. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 461:1-2.

  • Ernst, C. H. and J. E. Lovich. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, second edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 827 pages.

  • Ernst, C. H., R. W. Barbour, and J. E. Lovich. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. v + 578 pp.

  • Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1972. Turtles of the United States. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 347 pp.

  • Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1972. Turtles of the United States. Univ. Press of Kentucky, Lexington. x + 347 pp.

  • Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1989a. Turtles of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xii + 313 pp.

  • Ernst, C.H. and R.W. Barbour. 1972. Turtles of the United States. Univ. Kentucky Press, Lexington, KY. 347pp.

  • Fahey, K. M. 1980. A taxonomic study of the cooter turtles, Pseudemys floridana (LeConte) and Pseudemys concinna (LeConte), in the lower Red River, Atchafalaya River, and Mississippi River basins.Tulane Studies in Zoology 22(1):49-66.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • GEHLBACH, FREDERICK R. 1991. THE EAST-WEST TRANSITION ZONE OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN CENTRAL TEXAS: A BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS. TEXAS J. SCI. 43(4):415-427.

  • Green, N. B., and T. K. Pauley. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. xi + 241 pp.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Iverson, J. B. 2001. Reproduction of the river cooter, Pseudemys concinna, in Arkansas and across its range. Southwestern Naturalist 46:364-370.

  • Jackson, D. R. 1994. Overwintering of hatchling turtles in northern Florida. J. Herpetol. 28:401-402.

  • Jackson, D. R. 1995. Systematics of the Pseudemys concinna-floridana complex (Testudines: Emydidae): an alternative interpretation. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4):329-333.

  • Jackson, D. R. 2006. Pseudemys concinna - river cooter. Chelonian Research Monographs 3:325-337.

  • Jackson, T. G., Jr., D. H. Nelson, and A. B. Morris. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships in the North American genus Pseudemys (Emydidae) inferred from two mitochondrial genes. Southeastern Naturalist 11:297-310.

  • KECK, MICHAEL B. 1993. NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM TITUS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 45(4):360-362.

  • King, F. W., and R. L. Burke, editors. 1989. Crocodilian, tuatara, and turtle species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Association of Systematics Collections, Washington, D.C. 216 pages.

  • King, F. W., and R. L. Burke, editors. 1989. Crocodilian, tuatara, and turtle species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Association of Systematics Collections, Washington, D.C. 216 pp.

  • Lindeman, P. V. 1997. A comparative spotting-scope study of the distribution and relative abundance of river cooters (Pseudemys concinna) in western Kentucky and southern Mississippi. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3):378-383.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Moll, E.O. and M.A. Morris. 1991. Status of the river cooter, PSEUDEMYS CONCINNA, in Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 84(1):77-83.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.

  • Mount, R.H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn. 347 pp.

  • SEIDEL, MICHAEL E. 1994. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND TAXONOMY OF COOTER AND RED-BELLIED TURTLES IN THE NORTH AMERICAN GENUS PSEUDEMYS (EMYDIDAE). CHEL. CONSERV. BIOL. 1(2):117-130.

  • SEYLE, W., AND G. K. WILLIAMSON. 1988 (IN PREP). REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF GEORGIA: RANGE MAPS

  • Seidel, M. E. 1994. Morphometric analysis and taxonomy of cooter and red-bellied turtles in the North American genus Pseudemys (Emydidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(2):117-130.

  • Seidel, M. E. 1995. How many species of cooter turtles and where is the scientific evicence?--a reply to Jackson. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4):333-336.

  • Seidel, M. E., and C. H. Ernst. 1996. Pseudemys. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 625.1-625.7.

  • Seidel, M. E., and M. J. Dreslik. 1996. Pseudemys concinna. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 626.1-626.12.

  • Seidel, M. E., and W. M. Palmer. 1991. Morphological variation in turtles of the genus PSEUDEMYS (Testudines: Emydidae) from central Atlantic drainages. Brimleyana 17:105-135.

  • Smith, P.W. 1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 28(1):1-298.

  • Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [van Dijk, P.P., Iverson, J.B., Shaffer, H.B., Bour, R., and Rhodin, A.G.J.]. 2012. Turtles of the world, 2012 update: annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5:000.243-000.328. Online. Available: www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

  • VITT, L.J. 1981. PART II. REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. PP. 594-805, IN: J. LAERM (ED.), A SURVEY OF THE STATUS DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF POTENTIALLY THREATENED AND ENDANGERED VERTEBRATE SPECIES IN GEORGIA. GAME & FISH DIV./DNR, FINAL

  • WARD, ROCKY, EARL G. ZIMMERMAN, AND TIM L. KING. 1994. ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES TO TERRESTRIAL REPTILIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 46(1):21-26.

  • Ward, J. P. 1984. Relationships of chrysemyd turtles of North America (Testudines: Emydidae). Spec. Publ. Museum, Texas Tech Univ. (21):1-50.

  • Ward, J.P. 1984. Relationships of Chrysemyd turtles of North America. Special Publications - The Museum of Texas Tech. Univ. No. 21 April 1984.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.