Pseudanophthalmus catoryctos - Krekeler, 1973
Lesser Adams Cave Beetle
Synonym(s): Pseudanophthalmus cataryctos Krekeler, 1973
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.117482
Element Code: IICOL4E950
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Beetles - Other Beetles
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Pseudanophthalmus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Krekeler, C. H. 1973. Cave beetles of the genus Pseudanophthalmus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Kentucky bluegrass and vicinity. Fieldiana (Zoology) 62(4): 25-83.
Concept Reference Code: A73KRE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pseudanophthalmus catoryctos
Taxonomic Comments: rittmani group.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Nov2005
Global Status Last Changed: 21Aug2002
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Since original collection in 1964, Barr (1996) visited the cave but found no specimens and reported its cave "has now become [one of] the most outrageously vandalized caves in the eastern United States". He observed large amounts of trash, batteries, discarded clothing and other debris throughout the cave. In 2002, one specimen was found during a biological survey conducted by the Service and Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. There are no other caves in the vicinity and the species has not been found at any other locations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (21Aug2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Kentucky (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Described based upon material collected in 1964 from a cave in Madison County, Kentucky.

Area of Occupancy: 1-5 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Described based upon material collected in 1964 from Adams Cave in Madison County, Kentucky.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Only known from one cavein Madison County, Kentucky.

Population Size: 1 - 250 individuals
Population Size Comments: Likely very small population as only single locality and two separate trips in 1995 and 2002 produced a total of only a single specimen.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None (zero)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Recent trips to the single locality revealed a single specimen in 2002; none in 1995.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: MAIN THREAT = HABITAT MODIFICATION. Single occurrence in delicate habitat with evidence of heavy decline and human disturbance to a great scale. Random catastrophic or human induced disturbance events can easily wipe out this species entirely. One of the most vandalized caves in the eastern USA. Threat severity of moderate is a best guess. See also useful review in listing petition from Center for Biological Diversity. Anyone involved with protection and management cave systems or any kind of cave fauna should consult Elliott (1998) for a thorough review of the many kinds and sources of threats from the most obvious to less obvious factors like tobacco smoke and fumes from welding in gate construction. Explanations of why certain contaminants and changes such as alterations to entrances can seriously impact or eradicate cave fauna are useful. There is also an extensive bibliography.

Short-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Short-term Trend Comments: Since original collection in 1964, Barr (1996) visited the cave but found no specimens and reported Adams Cave "has now become [one of] the most outrageously vandalized caves in the eastern United States". He observed large amounts of trash, batteries, discarded clothing and other debris throughout the cave. In 2002, one specimen was found during a biological survey conducted by the Service and Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. There are no other caves in the vicinity and the species has not been found at any other locations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 70-90%
Long-term Trend Comments: see above under short-term trend

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Troglodytic (cave obligate) species in single disturbed site with declining numbers to near zero.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Need to determine population size, and reproduction potential.

Protection Needs: A gate control to access to the cave was constructed in 2002. Protection of the single cave site is imperative as Pseudanophthalmus pholeter also occurs in the same locality. Negotiations underway with landowner for conservation of the site.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100 square km (less than about 40 square miles)) Described based upon material collected in 1964 from a cave in Madison County, Kentucky.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States KY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Madison (21151)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Lower Kentucky (05100205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Cave beetles in the genus Pseudanophthalmus are fairly small, eyeless, reddish-browhn insects.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Species within the genus are differentiated by differences in the shape and size of the various body parts, especially the shape of the male appendages used during reproduction
Reproduction Comments: Not much specific life history known but in general cave beetles copulate in the fall, and the eggs are deposited in the cave soil duing late fall. Eggs hatch and larvae appear in late fall through early winter. Pupation occurs in late winter to early summer with the adult beetles emerging in early summer (Barr, 1996).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Special Habitat Factors: Subterranean obligate
Habitat Comments: Troglodytic cave obligate occurring in single habitat
Adult Food Habits: Detritivore, Scavenger
Food Comments: Feeds on detritus on cave floor and bat guano.
Length: .08 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Mar2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J., revised Dale Schweitzer, November 2005
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Mar2003
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Barr, T. C., Jr. 2004. A classification and checklist of the genus Pseudanophthalmus Jeannel: (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae). Special Publication of the Virginia Museum of Natural History No. 11. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville, VA. 52 pp.

  • Barr, T.C. 1996. Cave beetle status survey and prelisting recovery project. Unpublished report to Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, Kentucky, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Asheville, North Carolina. 63 pp.

  • Barr, T.C., Jr. 1994. Kentucky cave beetles: a progress report. Submitted to the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

  • Bousquet, Y. 2012. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico. ZooKeys 245:1-1722.

  • Elliott, William R. 1998. Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota. Elsevier Science Subterranean Biota (Ecosystems of the World Series). (Available on line.)

  • Krekeler, C. H. 1973. Cave beetles of the genus Pseudanophthalmus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Kentucky bluegrass and vicinity. Fieldiana (Zoology) 62(4): 25-83.

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