Primula incana - M.E. Jones
Jones Primrose
Other English Common Names: Mealy Primrose
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Primula incana M.E. Jones (TSN 24024)
French Common Names: primevère blanchâtre
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160869
Element Code: PDPRI080A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Primrose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Primulales Primulaceae Primula
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Primula incana
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 10Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: From Utah and Colorado north to Alaska and east to Quebec. Rare in southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota,and Montana, more common in Canada from British Columbia east to western Manitoba, rare in the Yukon and Alaska (where it is limited to stable flood plains along rivers).
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (10Sep2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Idaho (S1), Montana (S2), North Dakota (S1S2), Utah (S1), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S3S4), Manitoba (S4), Northwest Territories (SNR), Ontario (S1), Saskatchewan (S5?), Yukon Territory (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: From Utah and Colorado north to Alaska and east to Quebec. Rare in southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota,and Montana, more common in Canada from British Columbia east to western Manitoba, rare in the Yukon and Alaska (where it is limited to stable flood plains along rivers).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: From Utah and Colorado north to Alaska and east to Quebec. Rare in southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota,and Montana, more common in Canada from British Columbia east to western Manitoba, rare in the Yukon and Alaska (where it is limited to stable flood plains along rivers).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CO, ID, MT, ND, UT, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, ON, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Custer (16037), Teton (16081)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009)*, Deer Lodge (30023), Gallatin (30031), Jefferson (30043), Madison (30057), Sheridan (30091), Teton (30099)
ND Burke (38013), Divide (38023), Mountrail (38061)
UT Daggett (49009), Garfield (49017)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Beaverhead (10020002)+, Ruby (10020003)+, Big Hole (10020004)+, Jefferson (10020005)+, Madison (10020007)+, Gallatin (10020008)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Teton (10030205)+, Brush Lake closed basin (10060007)+, Stillwater (10070005)+*, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+
14 Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Paria (14070007)+
16 East Fork Sevier (16030002)+
17 Upper Clark Fork (17010201)+, Teton (17040204)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Mealy Primrose is slender, tall, and heavily farinose, or occasionally efarinose. It rises up to 46 cm high, and leaves are elliptic or oblanceolate, including the petioles, which are up to 6 cm long. Blades are 0.3-1.6 cm wide with denticulate margins and gradually narrow into a broadly winged petiole. The involucral bracts are 0.5-1 cm long, oblong, densely covered with white farina, flat above, and saccate or gibbous at the base. The umbels are capitate, 7-19 flowered, and the pedicels are short and 0.3-0.9 cm long. Flowers are homostylous. The calyx is green, heavily farinose, cylindrical, obscurely ribbed, and 0.4-0.7 cm long; it is divided up to one third its length by lanceolate teeth that are covered with capitate 3-4 celled glands. The corolla is lavendar with a yellow throat. The limb is 0.4-0.8 cm wide, emarginate, and is a tube that is equal to or slightly longer than the calyx. Stamens are ca. 1 mm long and located in the upper portion of the corolla tube. The stigma is capitate and located adjacent to the anthers. The capsule is cylindrical to slightly elliptical, 0.2-0.3 cm wide, and 1.5-2 times the length of the calyx. Seeds are brown, reticulate, ca. 0.2 mm long.
Technical Description: Plants slender, tall, and heavily farinose, occasionally efarinose. Scape to 46 cm high. Leaves elliptic or oblanceolate, including the petioles to 6 cm long, blade 0.3-1.6 cm wide, margins denticulate, blade gradually narrowing onto a broadly winged petiole. Involucral bracts oblong, densely coverd with white farina, flat above, saccate or gibbous at the base, 0.5-1 cm long. Umbels capitate, (4)7-19 flowered, pedicels short, 0.3-0.9 cm long. Flowers homostylous. Calyx green, heavily farinose, cylindrical, obscurely ribbed, 0.4-0.7(1) cm long, divided up to one third its length by lanceolate teeth covered with capitate 3-4 celled glands. Corolla lavender with yellow throat; limb 0.4-0.8 cm wide, tube equal to or slightly longer than calyx, limb emarginate. Stamens ca 1 mm long, located in upper portion of corolla tube. Stigma capitate, located adjacent to anthers. Pollen ca 19 um diam., exine microreticulate, 4-syncolpate. Capsule cylindrical to slightly elliptical, 0.2-0.3 cm wide, 1.5-2 times the length of the calyx. Seeds brown, reticulate, ca 0,2 mm long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: P. INCANA is a generally well-marked species with heavily farinose leaves, tall scape, and flat-tipped bracts subtending tight umbels of small homostylous flowers. Many northern collections have been misidentified as the smaller P. STRICTA because flowering begins when the scape is relatively short. Elongation of the scape continues throughout anthesis, and pedicels lengthen as seeds ripen. Thus, the characteristic tight umbels do not persist beyond anthesis, and individuals in the fruiting stage may be many times taller than those in early flowering stage. P. INCANA is most similar to P. LAURENTIANA. The latter is distinguished by having larger flowers, longer pedicels, broader, more denticulate leaves, and involute rather than flat bracts.
Habitat Comments: In seral herb communities with alkaline clay soil in river flood plains and in open meadows (Kelso 1987).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A natural occurrence of one or more plants.
Separation Barriers: EOs are separated by either: 1 kilometer or more across unsuitable habitat or altered and unsuitable areas; or 2 kilometers or more across apparently suitable habitat not known to be occupied.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected occurrences will eventually be found to be more closely connected. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 14May2002
Author: Ben Franklin
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: SIZE: There are no quantitative data available for this species. CONDITION: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species. This includes the presence of the appropriate, very specific edaphic requirements of this species, i.e., calcareous wet meadows and bogs.
Good Viability: SIZE: There are no quantitative data available for this species. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover.
Fair Viability: SIZE: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance).
Poor Viability: SIZE: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance.
Justification: SIZE: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. CONDITION: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Oct1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KMH

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kelso, S. 1987. Systematics and biogeography of the arctic and boreal species of Primula. Unpublished dissertation, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks.

  • Kelso, S. 1987. Systematics and biogeography of the arctic and boreal species of Primula. Unpublished dissertation, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks.

  • Kelso, S. 1991. Taxonomy of Primula sects. Aleuritia and Armerina in North America. Rhodora 93(873): 67-99.

  • Kelso, S. 1991. Taxonomy of Primula sects. Aleuritia and Armerina in North America. Rhodora 93(873): 67-99.

  • Kelso, S. 1992a. The genus Primula as a model for evolution in the Alaskan flora. Arctic and Alpine Research 24(1): 82-87.

  • Moseley, R. K., R. Bursik, and M. Mancuso. 1991. Floristic inventory of wetlands in Fremont and Teton counties, Idaho. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Conservation Data Center, Boise. 60 pp. plus appendices.

  • Moseley, R. K., R. J. Bursik, and M. Manusco. 1991. Floristic inventory of wetlands in Fremont and Teton counties, Idaho. Unpublished report on file IDCDC Department of Fish & Game, Boise, ID. 60 pp.

  • Williams, L. O. 1936b. Revision of the western Primulas. The American Midland Naturalist 17: 741-748.

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