Prenanthes barbata - (Torr. & Gray) Milstead
Barbed Rattlesnake-root
Other Common Names: barbed rattlesnakeroot
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Prenanthes barbata (Torr. & A. Gray) Milstead (TSN 38276)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154380
Element Code: PDAST7K060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Aster Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Asterales Asteraceae Prenanthes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Prenanthes barbata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Apr2010
Global Status Last Changed: 22Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Prenanthes barbata is known from approximately 35-70 extant occurrences scattered across Tennessee and southern Kentucky, northeastern Alabama and northwestern Georgia, eastern Mississippi, and southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, eastern Texas, and Oklahoma. Many occurrences are small (< 100 plants) and/or have a low percentage of individuals flowering. Considerable loss of historical habitat has occurred, due to such factors as large-scale conversion of natural forests to plantations in the western part of the range. Threats include continued land conversion to plantations in the western part of the range and spraying of herbicides along rights-of-way in the eastern part of the range. The species is believed to be relatively stable in some parts of its range, though suspected to be declining to some degree in other parts.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1S2), Arkansas (S2), Georgia (S2), Kentucky (SX), Louisiana (S2), Mississippi (S1), Oklahoma (SNR), Tennessee (S2), Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Scattered distribution, with occurrences known from Tennessee and southern Kentucky, northeastern Alabama and northwestern Georgia, eastern Mississippi, and southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, eastern Texas, and Oklahoma.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 35-70 occurrences are believed extant, fairly spread out across the range with the highest numbers in Tennessee, Texas, Georgia, and Louisiana. An additional 5 or so occurrences are considered historical or extirpated.

Population Size Comments: Most populations appear to be small, with the majority of available censuses recording less than 100 plants at the site. However, a few Louisiana populations are reported to contain "hundreds" of individuals.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: 9 occurrences are believed to have excellent or good viability thus far, although approximately half of known occurrences have not yet been assessed for viability, so more excellent or good sites may be documented once these are evaluated.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: In the eastern portion of the range (e.g., Tennessee and possibly Georgia), spraying of herbicides along powerline corridors and other rights-of-way is a threat, especiallly in western Tennessee (T. Crabtree and T. Patrick, pers. comm. 2010). In the western portion of the range (e.g., Arkansas and Texas), conversion of natural forests to plantations is very much an ongoing threat, affecting natural pine-hardwood forests in Arkansas and hardwood slope forests in Texas (T. Witsell, J. Poole, and J. Singhurst, pers. comm. 2010).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Although current trends are difficult to know with certainty, this species is believed to be relatively stable in Arkansas and Georgia (T. Witsell and T. Patrick, pers. comm. 2010). In Texas, it is thought to be declining slightly (J. Poole and J, Singhurst, pers. comm. 2010). In Tennessee, ongoing threats such as herbicide spraying on roadsides are believed to be causing some declines (T. Crabtree, pers. comm. 2010).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Considerable loss of this species' historical habitat has occurred, particularly in the western portion of its range. In Arkansas, most coastal plain forests (> 50%) have been converted to plantations; in Texas, many hardwood slope forests (> 50%) have likewise been converted to plantations (T. Witsell, J. Poole, and J. Singhurst, pers. comm. 2010).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: In at least Arkansas and Texas, in many of the populations, few if any of the plants flower each year, although hundreds of basal rosettes may be present (T. Witsell, J. Poole, and J. Singhurst, pers. comm. 2010). Burning seems to increase plant numbers, but usually does not substantially increase the percentage of plants flowering - a few, though not many, flowering plants tend to be found after burns. This species is able to persist on shady sites, gradually filling space and creating a large vegetative colony.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Scattered distribution, with occurrences known from Tennessee and southern Kentucky, northeastern Alabama and northwestern Georgia, eastern Mississippi, and southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, eastern Texas, and Oklahoma.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, KYextirpated, LA, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Cherokee (01019)
AR Ashley (05003), Bradley (05011), Calhoun (05013), Cleveland (05025), Drew (05043), Jefferson (05069), Pulaski (05119), Saline (05125)
GA Floyd (13115)
KY Trigg (21221)*
LA Beauregard (22011), Natchitoches (22069), Vernon (22115), Webster (22119), Winn (22127)
MS Lowndes (28087)*, Tishomingo (28141)
TN Chester (47023), Decatur (47039), Dickson (47043), Hardin (47071), Hickman (47081), Humphreys (47085), Lewis (47101), Maury (47119), Montgomery (47125), Perry (47135), Stewart (47161), Wayne (47181)
TX Angelina (48005), Bandera (48019), Cass (48067), Cherokee (48073), Hardin (48199)*, Jasper (48241), Kerr (48265), Nacogdoches (48347), Polk (48373), Real (48385), Rusk (48401), Sabine (48403), San Augustine (48405), Shelby (48419), Tyler (48457)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oostanaula (03150103)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Tibbee (03160104)+*
05 Harpeth (05130204)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Red (05130206)+
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Buffalo (06040004)+
08 South Fork Forked Deer (08010205)+, Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201)+, Lower Saline (08040204)+, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205)+, Dugdemona (08040303)+
11 Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)+, Loggy Bayou (11140203)+, Saline Bayou (11140208)+, Lower Sulphur (11140302)+, Caddo Lake (11140306)+
12 Middle Sabine (12010002)+, Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004)+, Lower Sabine (12010005)+, Upper Neches (12020001)+, Lower Neches (12020003)+, Upper Angelina (12020004)+, Lower Angelina (12020005)+, Village (12020006)+*, Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202)+, Upper Guadalupe (12100201)+, Upper Frio (12110106)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, mostly 1-1.5 m tall, bearing white, cream-colored, or yellow-tinged flower heads in early fall.
General Description: A perennial herb, mostly 1-1.5 m tall, bearing white, cream-colored, or yellow-tinged flower heads in early fall. Plant can be polymorphic depending on soil conditions, in good soil, a single main stem can support numerous lateral branches, however under poor conditions, a single, unbranched stem is visible (Chester and Ellis 2001). Alternate leaves, toothed or coarsely lobed, with lower leaves deciduous by August (Chester and Ellis 2001). Flowers white, in terminal heads, Sepals reddish-brown, quite hairy (Chester and Ellis 2001). Broken stems ooze a mily sap (Chester and Ellis 2001). Flowering: August - October . Fruiting: September - November

Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Prenanthes barbata occurs in somewhat different habitat types in the eastern vs. western portions of its range. In the eastern portion (e.g., Tennessee, Georgia), it is found in open habitats such as western highland grand prairies and barrens (TN), rights-of-way (TN), and Coosa prairies (GA). In the western portion (e.g., Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas), it occurs in more wooded areas such as upland woods (AR), mixed hardwood-loblolly pine woods and riparian forests (LA), and mesic slope forests (TX); in Texas, the increased light and decreased moisture resulting from opening up the forest canopy have been observed to be detrimental to the species.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jan1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. (1997), L. McDonald rev. 2001, rev. K. Gravuer (2010)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • MacDonald, John R. 1997. Letter to RGW, Mississippi Natural Heritage Program regarding the determination of Prenanthes barbata specimen in Mississippi. Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 1 pp. plus photocopy

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

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