Potamogeton confervoides - Reichenb.
Algae-like Pondweed
Other English Common Names: Alga Pondweed, Tuckerman's Pondweed
Other Common Names: Tuckerman's pondweed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Potamogeton confervoides Reichenb. (TSN 39025)
French Common Names: potamot confervoļde
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.128747
Element Code: PMPOT03050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pondweed Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Najadales Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Potamogeton confervoides
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Sep2017
Global Status Last Changed: 07Sep2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Potamogeton confervoides is a fairly frequent and abundant species with a large range but somewhat scattered distribution. It is reasonably secure at present because it occurs in remote locations, but it is highly vulnerable to changes in water chemistry and to other alterations in its aquatic habitats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (07Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), Maine (S3), Massachusetts (S2), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S1), New Hampshire (S3), New Jersey (S2), New York (S3), North Carolina (S2), Pennsylvania (S2), Rhode Island (SH), South Carolina (S1), Vermont (S2), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Labrador (S2S4), New Brunswick (S4), Newfoundland Island (S3S4), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S2), Quebec (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: HISTORIC RANGE: Potamogeton confervoides has been documented from Newfoundland to northern New York and northeastern Pennsylvania and in the coastal region to southern New Jersey, scattered westward through Ontario, Canada, to northern Michigan and Wisconsin. Radford, et al., 1968), report it for Moore, Richmond, and Scotland counties, North Carolina and in 1976, it was collected in Gates County, North Carolina (NCU 1991-93, NCSC 1993). Weakley (1993) reports it as no longer extant in Gates, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland counties, North Carolina. CURRENT RANGE: Information regarding current distribution was compiled from provincial and state Natural Heritage Program lists of rare species, floras, Fernald (1932), and Hellquist and Crow (1980) where otherwise not referenced. Potamogeton confervoides is currently known from only one occurrence in North Carolina, Cypress Creek in Manchester Danger Area, Fort Bragg, Cumberland County (TNC 1991-93), NCNHP 1993), where it is disjunct from the New Jersey Pine Barrens by 640 kilometers (400 miles). In South Carolina, it is currently known from a single site in Chesterfield County. In New Jersey and New York, it is currently known from at least 20 sites each. In Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Maine, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Quebec, it is known from only a few counties each. In Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, it is apparently common, at least locally. In Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, its status has not been determined. Bob Popp (VTHP) reports four extant populations in Vermont, seen in 1994.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: More than 60 occurrences, the majority of which appear to be extant, although several constitute rather small colonies: Maine (2 historic, 4-13 extant), Vermont (11), New York (10), Pennsylvania (8), Michigan (13), Wisconsin (7), North Carolina (7), South Carolina (1). In North Carolina, only one colony, a very localized occurrence, is known to be extant. The preceding data, however, do not include status information from states and provinces where the species is considered more common, such as New Hampshire, eastern Massachusetts, eastern Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. Occurrence numbers are also needed from Ontario, Quebec, Rhode Island and New Jersey. The total number of occurrences is therefore considerably larger than the number cited, and is likely 100 or more.

Population Size Comments: Varies from a few scattered plants to colonies where it is a dominant aquatic over a few thousand square meters, consisting of hundreds to thousands of plants. In Pennsylvania, from 1000 to 10,000 plants were estimated in one site around the edge of a lake. A similar dominance has been reported from the sole site in North Carolina.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats to the species include loss or change of habitat due to widely fluctuating water levels, draining, peat mining, high nutrient inputs, liming of ponds for fisheries management, herbicides, grazing by tame or feral waterfowl, and siltation. Threatened by lakeshore development and pollution (including eutrophication), beaver dam destruction and beaver control, aquatic weed herbiciding, and general watershed impacts through timber harvesting and mining activities. Currently, however, many populations are protected through their general remoteness, although as development increases in some areas, such as for cottages and second homes, populations may experience increased threat.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Stable and demonstrably secure in some states/provinces, but susceptible and possibly declining in areas where habitat degradation is increasing through lakeshore development and local pollution, or the destruction of beaver dams (and accompanying beaver control) and such activities as lake-liming. Populations appear to be persisting in sites where aquatic herbicides such as diquat are being used, but trends in these sites are not known, as there are no known biological monitoring programs.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Probably tolerant of some disturbance, but susceptible to changes in water chemistry that increase habitat alkalinity; vulnerable to eutrophication.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: HISTORIC RANGE: Potamogeton confervoides has been documented from Newfoundland to northern New York and northeastern Pennsylvania and in the coastal region to southern New Jersey, scattered westward through Ontario, Canada, to northern Michigan and Wisconsin. Radford, et al., 1968), report it for Moore, Richmond, and Scotland counties, North Carolina and in 1976, it was collected in Gates County, North Carolina (NCU 1991-93, NCSC 1993). Weakley (1993) reports it as no longer extant in Gates, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland counties, North Carolina. CURRENT RANGE: Information regarding current distribution was compiled from provincial and state Natural Heritage Program lists of rare species, floras, Fernald (1932), and Hellquist and Crow (1980) where otherwise not referenced. Potamogeton confervoides is currently known from only one occurrence in North Carolina, Cypress Creek in Manchester Danger Area, Fort Bragg, Cumberland County (TNC 1991-93), NCNHP 1993), where it is disjunct from the New Jersey Pine Barrens by 640 kilometers (400 miles). In South Carolina, it is currently known from a single site in Chesterfield County. In New Jersey and New York, it is currently known from at least 20 sites each. In Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Maine, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Quebec, it is known from only a few counties each. In Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, it is apparently common, at least locally. In Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, its status has not been determined. Bob Popp (VTHP) reports four extant populations in Vermont, seen in 1994.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, VT, WI
Canada LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005), New London (09011), Windham (09015)*
MA Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005)*, Franklin (25011), Middlesex (25017)*, Norfolk (25021)*, Plymouth (25023)*, Worcester (25027)
ME Cumberland (23005), Franklin (23007), Hancock (23009), Kennebec (23011), Knox (23013)*, Oxford (23017), Penobscot (23019), Piscataquis (23021)*, Washington (23029), York (23031)
MI Alger (26003), Chippewa (26033), Delta (26041), Keweenaw (26083), Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097), Schoolcraft (26153)
MN St. Louis (27137)
NC Craven (37049), Cumberland (37051), Gates (37073)*, Harnett (37085), Hoke (37093), Moore (37125), Richmond (37153), Scotland (37165)
NJ Burlington (34005), Ocean (34029), Sussex (34037)
PA Carbon (42025), Lackawanna (42069), Lehigh (42077)*, Luzerne (42079)*, Sullivan (42113), Wyoming (42131)
RI Kent (44003)*, Washington (44009)*
SC Chesterfield (45025), Richland (45079)
VT Bennington (50003), Essex (50009), Orleans (50019), Rutland (50021), Windham (50025), Windsor (50027)
WI Barron (55005), Bayfield (55007), Burnett (55013), Forest (55041), Iron (55051), Langlade (55067)*, Lincoln (55069)*, Oneida (55085), Vilas (55125)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 East Branch Penobscot (01020002)+*, Lower Penobscot (01020005)+, Dead (01030002)+, Lower Kennebec (01030003)+, Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+*, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+, Maine Coastal (01050002)+, St. George-Sheepscot (01050003)+*, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Merrimack (01070002)+*, Nashua (01070004)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Miller (01080202)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+*, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+
03 Ghowan (03010203)+*, Lower Neuse (03020204)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+, Lumber (03040203)+, Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Wateree (03050104)+
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103)+, Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Tahquamenon (04020202)+, Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111)+, Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Manistique (04060106)+, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Flambeau (07050002)+, South Fork Flambeau (07050003)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+, Lake Dubay (07070002)+*
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A very distinctive species of pondweed with fan-shaped branches of extremely delicate leaves and a long solitary peduncle.
Technical Description: Stems 1-8 dm, slender and delicate, repeatedly branched; rhizome elongate. Leaves numerous, all submersed, very soft and delicate, flat, 2-5 cm x 0.25 mm, tapering to a hair-like tip, 1-nerved, the space from the midrib to the margin entirely lacunar. Stipular sheaths axillary, obtuse, 1-5 cm, seldom longer, evanescent. Winter buds fusiform, 1-2 cm. Peduncles usually solitary and terminal below, (3-)5-25 cm, slender below, somewhat clavate. Spike capitate, few-flowered, 5-12 mm. Achenes turgid, broadly obovoid, 2-3 mm, with a sharp dorsal keel flanked by a pair of more obscure ones (Gleason and Cronquist, 1991).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Leaves all submersed, very slender, 0.1-0.5 mm wide, apices very tapered, 1-veined, solitary peduncle.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers are often protogynous. Many Potamogeton are anemophilous, although some are water pollinated (eg P. filiformis, P. pectinatus). Plants largely dispersed by floating parts, Seeds or plant parts transported by aquatic birds (B30RID01HQUS). Shorebirds and marshbirds also consume the seeds.
Riverine Habitat(s): Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Habitat Comments: Acid or soft-water bogs and lakes (Voss, 1972); bog-pools and runnels, slow-flowing streams associated with acid lakes (Roland and Smith, 1983); shallow areas of peaty or sandy pools and ponds (Radford et al., 1968).

This species occurs in shallow water (to 2 meters deep) of beaver ponds, impoundments, natural lakes, high-altitude tarns, pools in Sphagnum bogs and peatlands, and slow-moving streams. Substrates vary from sandy to peaty, and the water is typically very acidic and nutrient-poor.

Hellquist and Crow (1980) state "This species is found in waters of the greatest acidity in New England. The pH may be as low as 5.0, and the alkalinity can approach 0.0 mg/l." In Wisconsin, it is noted for its "... preference for, or tolerance of, acidic waters. The pH of a sample of its known growing places is 4.2--more than 10 times more acid than natural rain" (Brynildson 1981). In North Carolina, Beal (1977) recorded pH values of 5.6. Fernald (1932) termed this species an oxylophyte, i.e., one for which the acidity of the substrate or water medium is a more important environmental criterion than climate, elevation, or others. Other oxylophytes which may be found with Potamogeton confervoides are Schizaea pusilla, Lycopodiella appressa, Xyris montana, Eleocharis olivacea, E. microcarpa, E. robbinsii, Scirpus subterminalis, Sparganium fluctuans, Carex oligosperma, C. exilis, Orontium aquaticum, Juncus pelocarpus, Sagittaria engelmanniana, Myriophyllum humile, Utricularia geminiscapa, Drosera intermedia, and D. anglica. In the NC Sandhills, associates include floating aquatics such as Nuphar luteum ssp. macrophyllum, Nymphaea odorata, Nymphoides spp., Brasenia schreberi, Utricularia spp., and Myriophyllum heterophyllum. Emergents associated with it may include Scirpus subterminalis, S. cyperinus, Carex glaucescens, Eleocharis robbinsii, E. equisetoides, E. quadrangulata, Fuirena scirpoidea, Rhynchospora macrostachya, R. corniculata, Pontederia cordata, Orontium aquaticum, and Peltandra virginica.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Aug2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Michael R. Penskar, MIHP and K. Crowley, MRO (1995); rev. L. Morse (2000).
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Apr1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Crow, G. E., and C. B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and wetland plants of northeastern North America. Volume 1. Pteridophytes, Gymnopserms, and Angiosperms: Dicotyledons. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 448 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 352 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Godfrey, R., and J. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

  • Haynes, R. R., and C. B. Hellquist. 2000. Potamogetonaceae. Pages 47-74 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 22. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Hellquist, C.B. and G.E. Crow 1980. Aquatic Vascular Plants of New England: Part 1. Zosteraceae, Potamogetonaceae, Zannichelliaceae, Najadaceae. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station University of New Hampshire. Station Bull. 515.

  • Hellquist, C.B. and G.E. Crow. 1980. Aquatic vascular plants of New England: Part 1. Zosteraceae, Potamogetonaceae, Zannichelliaceae, Najadaceae. New Hampshire Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire. 66 p.

  • Hodgdon, A.R., P. Giguere, S.B. Krochmal, and A. Riel. 1952. New Potamogeton records in New Hampshire. Rhodora 54(646): 237-246.

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the Laurentian mixed forest province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 352 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 20 November 2015.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. February 2000. Element Occurrence Record Database. Latham, NY.

  • Ogden, E. C. 1943. The broad-leaved species of Potamogeton of North America north of Mexico. Rhodora 45:57-105.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Roland, A.E., and E.C. Smith. 1983. The flora of Nova Scotia: Volumes 1 and 2. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada. 746 pp.

  • Schultz, J. 2003d. Conservation Assesment for Algal Pondweed (Potamogeton confervoides). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/plants.html.

  • Schultz, J.  2003. Conservation assessment for algal pondweed (Potamogeton confervoides). United States Forest Service, Eastern Region, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  18 pp.

  • Seymour, F.C. 1969. The flora of Vermont: a manual for the identification of ferns and flowering plants growing without cultivation in Vermont. The University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. 377 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1993. Rare and endangered plant survey and natural area inventory of Fort Bragg and Camp MacKall military reservations, North Carolina. Final report by The Nature Conservancy, Sandhills Field Office, December 1993.

  • Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora: Part I Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Book 55, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 488 pp.

  • Voss, E. G., and A. A. Reznicek. 2012. Field manual of Michigan flora. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1008 pp.

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 1993. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the rare plant species of North Carolina. Draft North Carolina Natural Heritage Program list of the watch list plant species. Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Dept. Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Raleigh.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.