Porzana carolina - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sora
Other English Common Names: Sora Rail, sora
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176242)
French Common Names: marouette de Caroline
Spanish Common Names: Polluela Sora
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103998
Element Code: ABNME08020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 10758

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae Porzana
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Porzana carolina
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5N), Alaska (S3B), Arizona (S4), Arkansas (S4N), California (SNRB,SNRN), Colorado (S3S4B), Connecticut (S2B), Delaware (S2), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S4), Idaho (S1N,S4B), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4B), Iowa (S3B,S5N), Kansas (S1B,S2N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S4B), Maryland (S2B), Massachusetts (S2S3B,S4N), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (S2), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S1B), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S3S4), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (S3), New Mexico (S4B,S4N), New York (S4), North Carolina (S3N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S5B), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S3B), Rhode Island (S1B,S1N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S1B,S4N), Texas (S3B,S4N), Utah (S4S5B,S3N), Vermont (S3B), Virginia (S1B,S2N), Washington (S4B), West Virginia (S1B,S1N), Wisconsin (S4B), Wyoming (S4B)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S4B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S4M), Newfoundland Island (S2B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S4S5B), Nova Scotia (S5B), Ontario (S4B), Prince Edward Island (S5B), Quebec (S4B), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska to northern Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, south locally to northwestern Baja California, southern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, southern Missouri, central Ohio, and Maryland. NORTHERN WINTER: regularly from central California to southern Texas, Gulf Coast, and South Carolina, south through Middle America and West Indies to South America (west of Andes to central Peru, east of Andes to eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, Venezuela, and Guyana. (AOU 1983).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Harvest of wild and planted rice may result in nest destruction and excessive disturbance (Fannucchi et al. 1986).

Short-term Trend Comments: Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a significant (-13.9% per year) decline in central North America during 1966-1991 and a significant (-6.2% per year) decline in central North America during 1982-1991; populations could increase if wetland losses due to drought are reversed (Conway et al. 1994). Apparently has declined in abundance in Michigan, though the geographical range has not changed (Brewer et al. 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska to northern Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, south locally to northwestern Baja California, southern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, southern Missouri, central Ohio, and Maryland. NORTHERN WINTER: regularly from central California to southern Texas, Gulf Coast, and South Carolina, south through Middle America and West Indies to South America (west of Andes to central Peru, east of Andes to eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, Venezuela, and Guyana. (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Coconino (04005)*
CT Hartford (09003)*, Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New London (09011)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gem (16045), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Madison (16065), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
KS Comanche (20033), Meade (20119), Morton (20129)
MA Middlesex (25017), Worcester (25027)
MD Allegany (24001), Anne Arundel (24003)*, Dorchester (24019), Frederick (24021), Howard (24027)*, Prince Georges (24033)*, Somerset (24039), Wicomico (24045)
MO Andrew (29003), Barton (29011), Benton (29015), Boone (29019), Buchanan (29021), Chariton (29041), Clark (29045), Clay (29047), Holt (29087), Jasper (29097), Lincoln (29113), Linn (29115), Livingston (29117), Mississippi (29133), Pettis (29159), Pike (29163), Platte (29165), Saline (29195), Stoddard (29207), Vernon (29217), Wayne (29223)
NH Cheshire (33005), Coos (33007), Hillsborough (33011), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
NJ Essex (34013), Gloucester (34015), Hunterdon (34019), Morris (34027), Somerset (34035), Sussex (34037)
NM San Juan (35045)
OH Ashland (39005), Ashtabula (39007), Butler (39017), Carroll (39019), Columbiana (39029), Delaware (39041), Erie (39043), Geauga (39055)*, Guernsey (39059), Hamilton (39061)*, Harrison (39067), Jackson (39079), Lake (39085), Licking (39089), Lucas (39095), Mahoning (39099), Marion (39101), Morrow (39117), Ottawa (39123), Portage (39133), Putnam (39137), Richland (39139), Sandusky (39143), Seneca (39147), Summit (39153), Tuscarawas (39157), Union (39159), Wayne (39169), Wyandot (39175)
PA Armstrong (42005), Bedford (42009), Blair (42013), Butler (42019), Cambria (42021), Crawford (42039), Cumberland (42041), Indiana (42063), Lawrence (42073), Luzerne (42079), Mercer (42085), Montour (42093), Northampton (42095), Northumberland (42097), Pike (42103)
RI Kent (44003), Newport (44005), Providence (44007), Washington (44009)
VA Accomack (51001), Clarke (51043), Rockingham (51165)
WV Mason (54053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Nashua (01070004)+, Concord (01070005)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Waits (01080103)+, West (01080107)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+*, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Raystown (02050303)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Severn (02060004)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Monocacy (02070009)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
04 Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+
05 French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+, Conemaugh (05010007)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Walhonding (05040003)+, Wills (05040005)+, Licking (05040006)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Miami (05090202)+*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+
07 Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, The Sny (07110004)+
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+
10 Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Nodaway (10240010)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Little Osage (10290103)+, Marmaton (10290104)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+
11 Upper Cimarron (11040002)+, Crooked (11040007)+, Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008)+, Spring (11070207)+
14 Middle San Juan (14080105)+, Chaco (14080106)+, Chinle (14080204)+
15 Moenkopi Wash (15020018)+*
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Payette (17050122)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+, Little Salmon (17060210)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 6-18 (commonly 10-12). Incubation, by both sexes, lasts 18-20 days. In the upper Midwest, most hatch in late May or early June. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest within 1-2 days but may return at night for brooding. Cornell Nest Record Program data indicate a nest success rate of 0.53 (Conway et al. 1994). Females may lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics; females may be able to recognize eggs that are not their own (see Sorenson 1995, Condor 97:819-821).
Ecology Comments: BREEDING: Home range size averaged 0.19 ha during brood-rearing (Johnson and Dinsmore 1985). NON-BREEDING: Roosts communally. Home range averaged 0.78 hectares in Arizona during winter (Conway 1990).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Arrives in northern breeding areas April-May, departs by September-October (Bent 1926). May make local migrations in Pacific states, generally extensive migrations elswhere. Migrants arrive in Costa Rica mostly in October, depart by late February or March (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Migration flights are mostly at night (Cogswell 1977).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Scrub-shrub wetland
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Primarily shallow freshwater emergent wetlands (e.g., marshes of cattail, sedge, blue-joint, or bulrush), less frequently in bogs, fens, wet meadows, and flooded fields, sometimes foraging on open mudflats adjacent to marshy habitat. Also occurs locally in swamps, along slough borders, and in mangroves. Can use very small marshes (e.g., 4 nests have been found in a half-acre marsh) (see Brewer et al. 1991). Nonbreeding: also in coastal salt marshes; roosts in cattails or other dense vegetation. In northern wetlands and midle-southern Atlantic coastal wetlands, wild rice provides habitat during migration (Fannucchi et al. 1986).

Nests about 15 cm above water level in marsh vegetation, often near open water. Nest is anchored to emergent plants or sometimes placed on top of a mound (Cogswell 1977). In Michigan, nests most often were over water 10-15 cm deep (see Brewer et al. 1991).

Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mollusks, insects, seeds of marsh plants, duckweed (Terres 1980). Seeds, especially those of sedge and bulrush, may comprise the bulk of the diet. Often forages along edges (e.g., between vegetation types or along the edge of open water).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Leaves dense cover mostly in early morning and evening.
Length: 22 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: Eddleman et al. (1988) provided the following information on managing waterfowl areas in a way that is compatible with the conservation of inland rails. Wetlands of the greatest importance to rallids (other than gallinules and coots) are shallower and have greater percentage cover by emergent vegetation than those typically managed for waterfowl. Dewatering in northern breeding areas should occur before April 15 to avoid disruption of rail nest initiation. Gradual dewatering (and presumably presence of topographic diversity) provides the maximum amount of favorable foraging area (edge between moist soil and marsh). Amount of nesting cover (emergent perennial vegetation) should be maximized. To provide rail habitat every year, different impoundments should be flooded in different years.

For autumn migration, shallow flooding should commence in late summer in middle latitudes (vs. late autumn or winter for waterfowl), and habitat should include various shallow water depths, robust cover, and short-stemmed seed-producing plants. Flooding too deeply and too early, and deep winter flooding, lead to loss of robust plant cover.

In spring, areas that have annual grasses and smartweeds should be shallowly flooded (< 15 cm), with some areas flooded to depth of up to 50 cm. Drawdowns are most favorable when they concentrate invertebrate prey. These conditions also provide excellent habitat for dabbling ducks such as blue-winged teal and northern shoveler. Land leveling, which reduces topographic diversity and favorable rail foraging habitat (edge) should be avoided.

Rice harvest should be managed in such a way as to minimize nest destruction and disturbance of soras (Eddleman et al. 1988).

Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Rails

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: The high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by fairly large distances makes it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for rails; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Little information available, but most rails appear to have very small breeding home ranges: Clapper Rail, varies from an average of 0.4 hectares in California and Louisiana (Zembal et al. 1989) to 3.6 hectares (incubating males) in Arizona; Eddleman 1989); Sora, average of 0.19 ha during brood-rearing (Johnson and Dinsmore 1985). Dispersal distances are poorly known but surely extend at least a few kilometers.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Notes: Includes all species in the family Rallidae.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of traditional occurrence (including historical); minimally a reliable observation of 10 or more wintering or resident individuals in appropriate habitat (for rare taxa can be minimally one individual). Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events outside the normal distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distances are arbitrary and attempt to balance the general sedentary nature of these birds with their capability to disperse significant distances across suitable and unsuitable habitat.

Nonbreeding home ranges are relatively small. In Arizona, home ranges of non-breeding Clapper Rails significantly larger than breeding home ranges; varied from 21.0 hectares (August-October females) to 24.0 hectares (winter males; Eddleman 1989); elsewhere home ranges considerably smaller (Zembal et al. 1989). Soras wintering in Arizona had average home range sizes of 0.78 hectares (Conway 1990). Even at the northern end of their wintering range (British Columbia), Virginia Rails can persist in spring-fed marshes less than 1 ha in extent (R. J. Cannings, pers. comm.)

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des oiseaux du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 13 pages.

  • Audubon Society. 1981-1985. Breeding Bird Atlas of New Hampshire. (unpublished).

  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

  • Bent, A. C. 1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 135.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Braun, M. J., D. W. Finch, M. B. Robbins, and B. K. Schmidt. 2000. A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams, Jr. 1991. The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Michigan. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Michigan. xvii + 594 pp.

  • Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

  • Cadman, M. D., P. F. J. Eagles, and F. M. Helleiner. 1987. The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Ontario. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Canada. 617pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Canadian Wildlife Service. 1995. Last Mountain Lake and Stalwart National Wildlife Areas: Bird Checklist - Fourth Edition. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

  • Castro, I. and A. Phillips. 1996. A guide to the birds of the Galapagos Islands. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

  • Cogswell, H. L. 1977. Water birds of California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 399 pp.

  • Colorado Bird Observatory. 1996. DRAFT 1996 Status of Colorado Birds. Submitted to Colorado Division of Wildlife. December 31, 1996. 137 p.

  • Conway, C. J. 1990. Seasonal changes in movements and habitat use by three sympatric species of rails. M.Sc.thesis, University of Wyoming, Laramie.

  • Conway, C. J., W. R. Eddleman, and S. H. Anderson. 1994. Nesting success and survival of Virginia rails and soras. Wilson Bull. 106:466-473.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Dionne C. 1906. Les oiseaux de la province de Québec. Dussault et Proulx.

  • Division of Natural Resources, Navajo Fish and Wildlife Department. 1995. Endangered Species List for The Navajo Nation.

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  • EVENS, J. AND G.W. PAGE. 1986. PREDATION ON BLACK RAILS DURING HIGH TIDES IN SALT MARSHES. CONDOR 88(1):107-108.

  • Eddleman, W. R. 1989. Biology of the Yuma Clapper Rail in the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. Final Report, Intra-Agency Agreement No. 4-AA-30-02060, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma Project Office, Yuma, AZ.

  • Erskine, A. J. 1992. Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime Provinces. Nimbus Publishing and the Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  • FISHER, W.H. 1894. MARYLAND BIRDS THAT INTEREST THE SPORTMAN. OOLOGIST 11(3):94-97,137-139.

  • Fannucchi, W. A., G. T. Fannucchi, and L. E. Nauman. 1986. Effects of harvesting wild rice, ZIZANIA AQUATICA, on sora rails. Can. Field-Nat. 100:533-536.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. Univ. Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pp.

  • Johnson, R. R., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1985. Broodrearing and postbreeding habitat use by Virginia Rails and Soras. Wilson Bulletin 97:551-554.

  • KAUFMANN, G.W. 1983. DISPLAYS AND VOCALIZATIONS OF THE SORA AND THE VIRGINIA RAIL. WILSON BULL. 95(1):42-59.

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