Polypodium glycyrrhiza - D.C. Eat.
Licorice Fern
Other Common Names: licorice fern
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polypodium glycyrrhiza D.C. Eat. (TSN 17234)
French Common Names: polypode réglisse
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142178
Element Code: PPPOL020F0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Filicopsida Filicales Polypodiaceae Polypodium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polypodium glycyrrhiza
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 06Sep1985
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (S1), California (SNR), Idaho (S1), Oregon (SNR), Utah (SH), Washington (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Chiefly near the coast (but not really maritime), extending inland to the w. base of the Cascade Mtns., and in the Columbia R. Gorge; Kamtchatka and the Aluetian Is. to s. Alaska, s. to c. California, and disjunct in northern Idaho.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Chiefly near the coast (but not really maritime), extending inland to the w. base of the Cascade Mtns., and in the Columbia R. Gorge; Kamtchatka and the Aluetian Is. to s. Alaska, s. to c. California, and disjunct in northern Idaho.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, ID, OR, UT, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Gila (04007)*
ID Clearwater (16035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Upper Salt (15060103)+*
17 Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+*, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Long-creeping, licorice-flavored rhizome; stipes 2-18(27) cm long; the expanded portion of the frond ovate-lanceoloate to nearly oblong, 6(8)-23(35) cm long, 2.5-7(12) cm wide, deeply pinnatifid, truncate at the base, acuminate to acute at the apex; sori are naked (no indusium); terrestrail on shaded banks, epiphytic on tree trunks, or occasionally epipetric.
Technical Description: Rhizome firm, licorice-flavored; leaves larger than in P. hesperium, the petiole 6-30 cm long, the blade (10) 15-50 cm long and (4.5) 5-20 cm wide with 10-30 pairs of offset pinnae; pinnae finely serrulate to occasionally incised, decurrent on the rachis, linear-oblong to lance-subulate, sometimes carrying their width to well above the middle, more often tapering gradually from near the middle (or even near the base) to the slender tip, obscurely purbulent along the costa and sometimes also finely glandular, but without ramentum, the largest ones (2.5) 3-13 cm. long and 5-13 mm wide, borne near or below the middle of the blade, the lowest ones moderately or scarcely reduced, the distal ones gradually reduced and confluent; veins forking, free, ending in more or less evident hydathodes; sori borne a little nearer to the costa than to the margins, rotund-elliptic, mostly 1.5-2.5 mm long, without paraphyses; plants fruiting from mid- and late summer into the fall, the fertile leaves persisting into the following year (Hitchcock, et al. 1969).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Rhizome slender to moderately stout with intensely sweet licorice flavor.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on very shallow, calcium rich soils, on tree trunks, mossy logs, rocks, and moist banks.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: FOOD, MEDICINE/DRUG
Production Method: Cultivated, Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: The rhizomes of this fern exhibit a bittersweet taste and have a history of human use in the Pacific northwest region, both as foodstuff and as a medical agent (Kim et al., 1988).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Dec1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KMH

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Berch, S. M., S. Gamiet, and E. Deom. 1988. Mycorrhizal status of some plants of southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 66(10): 1924-1928.

  • Caicco, S. L. 1987. National Natural Landmark evaluation. Aquarius proposed Research Natural Area (Idaho). Prepared for U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Seattle, WA. 24 pp. plus appendices.

  • Chambers, K. L. 1973. Floristic relationships of Onion Peak with Saddle Mountain, Clatsop County, Oregon. Madrono 22(3): 105-114.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2000. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 5, Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 389pp.

  • Graf, P. E. 1974. Successional stages of red alder in Bonner County, Idaho. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 146 pp.

  • Haufler, C. H., M. D. Windham, F. A. Lang, and S. A. Whitmore. 1990. Polypodiaceae. Polypodium. Unpublished manuscript for the Flora of North America Project. 17 pp.

  • Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 1: Vascular cryptogams, gymnosperms, and monocotyledons. Univ. Washington Press, Seattle. 914 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kim, J., J. M. Pezzuto, D. D. Soejarto, F. A. Lang, and A. D. Kinghorn. 1988. Polypodoside A, an intensley sweet constituent of the rhizomes of Polypodium glycyrrhiza. Journal of Natural Products 51(6): 1166-172.

  • Klinka, K., V.J. Krajina, A. Ceska, and A.M. Scagel. 1989. Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. UBC Press, Vancouver. 288 pp.

  • Lang, F. A. 1969. A new name for a species of Polypodium from northwestern North America. Madrono 20: 53-60.

  • Lorain, C. C. 1991b. Action plan for sensitive plant species on the Clearwater National Forest. Unpublished report. 63 pp. plus appendices.

  • Stone, R.D. 1998. Endemic and rare plants of Utah: an overview of their distribution and status. Prepared for: Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission, U.S. Department of the Interior by Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 566 pp. + appendices.

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