Polyodon spathula - (Walbaum, 1792)
Paddlefish
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polyodon spathula (Walbaum, 1792) (TSN 161088)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105060
Element Code: AFCAB01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Acipenseriformes Polyodontidae Polyodon
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polyodon spathula
Taxonomic Comments: Low level of genetic variability among populations; potential for polytypy may be slight because of relatively recent isolation of populations in different river systems (Carlson et al. 1982, Starnes 1995). Family includes only two living species; the other species occurs in the Yangtze River, China.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Aug2012
Global Status Last Changed: 10Sep2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread in rivers in the eastern and central U.S., though less so than historically; populations are faring well in some areas, apparently declining or of unknown trend in much of the range; threats include habitat alteration, pollution, and harvesting for caviar; being stocked in eleven states, largely to compensate for destruction or unavailability of spawning habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NX (10Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S2?), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S3), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (SX), Minnesota (S2), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (S3), Montana (S1S2), Nebraska (S2), New York (SX), North Carolina (SH), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (S1S2), Pennsylvania (SX), South Dakota (S4), Tennessee (S3), Texas (S3), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (SX)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: XT (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Extirpated (25Apr2008)
Comments on COSEWIC: This fish, once found in the Great Lakes, was apparently never common in the Canadian portion of its range. It has not been observed in Canadian waters since 1917 despite extensive sampling and the fact that such a distinctive fish would have been easily recognizable.

Disappeared from Canada in approximately 1917. Designated Extirpated in April 1987. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000 and April 2008.

IUCN Red List Category: VU - Vulnerable
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II
American Fisheries Society Status: Vulnerable (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Mississippi River basin from southwestern New York to central Montana and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Basin, Alabama (primarily below the Fall Line; Mettee et al. 1996), to Galveston Bay, Texas (Page and Burr 2011). The historical range included occurrences in Canada in Lake Huron and Lake Helen and in 26-27 states in the United States (Parker 1988, Graham 1997).

This species is extirpated in Canada, there have been no Canadian records since the early 1900s (Parker 1988). However, Canada never was a significant part of the distribution (highly peripheral).

In the United States, the species has been extirpated from five states: Maryland, Michigan, New York (known from only a single, old, apparently flood-related record; Smith 1985), North Carolina (known from an 1800s report for the French Broad River), and Pennsylvania (Graham 1997, Michigan Natural Heritage Program). Again, except Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983), these peripheral areas never represented a significant part of the range. Paddlefish also are extirpated in the Great Lakes basin (around 1900; known with certainty only from Lake Erie); Galveston Bay and the Sabine River drainages, Texas; Calcasieu drainage, Louisiana; Okoboji and Spirit Lakes and the upper Des Moines River, Iowa; Reelfoot, Dale Hollow, and J.P. Priest Lakes, Tennessee; above Prairie du Sac Dam on the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin; and above Thurlow Dam on the Tallapoosa River and above the Jordan Dam on the Coosa River, Alabama (Gengerke 1986).

Successful reproduction in the lower Black River, Wisconsin, in 1989 and 1991 was the first indication of such by paddlefish at the northern end of the range in the central United States (Jennings and Wilson 1993).

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy is unknown but quite large.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This is a widely distributed species occurring in major rivers throughout 22 states. Information is not available on the number of distinct occurrences (subpopulations). Based on ten-year-old data, the Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA) recognized three primary genetic strains: the upper Missouri River Basin in Montana and North Dakota; Missouri and Mississippi River basins in the central and south-central United States; and the Alabama River System (Kim Graham, pers. comm., 1998). Numerous impoundments occur throughout the range and divide the distribution into dozens of fragmented occurrences.

Occurrences in the Clinch and Powell rivers in Virginia possibly represent year-round peripheral locations of a population residing in Norris Reservoir in Tennessee (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but exceeds 10,000. Harvest statistics indicate that the species is locally numerous. For example, from 1975-1985 an annual average of 138,000 kg of paddlefish were harvested commercially in Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan 1988). "About 100 tons" were harvested annually during the two-month snagging season in the Osage River in Missouri before closure of Truman Dam; a comparable harvest is now supported by stocked paddlefish that grow to harvestable size in Lake of the Ozarks and Truman Reservoir (Pflieger 1997). Page and Burr (2011) regarded this species as fairly common.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by siltation of spawning habitat, pollution, back-to-back impoundments, and, in some areas, exploitation by the caviar industry (see Burkhead and Jenkins 1991, Wilkinson 1997).

Habitat destruction and river modification are the most obvious changes affecting abundance and distribution. Construction and operation of dams on mainstem streams has had severe impacts. Dams eliminated traditional spawning sites (paddlefish can live in reservoirs but need streams for spawning), interrupted natural spawning migrations, altered water flow regimes, dewatered streams, and eliminated backwater areas that were important as nursery and feeding areas (see Graham 1997, Pflieger 1997). Dams have curtailed the long-range movements that may be required to maintain populations (Dillard et al. 1986). It is likely that structural changes in big river systems have adversely affected most of the original habitat (Sparrowe 1986).

Along much of the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers and their tributaries agricultural development has resulted in soil erosion, and fertilizer and pesticide runoff. Industrial pollution is severe along the Ohio River and tributaries to the Mississippi River, and problems with municipal wastes occur at many sites (Sparrowe 1986).

Overharvest is a conservation issue (Mettee et al. 1996). Poaching for caviar has been a concern for several years. Approximately 40% of commercial harvest comes from the Tennessee River (Carlson and Bonislawsky 1981). In 1995, the reported Tennessee egg harvest was about 1,500 pounds. When egg prices are high, it is not uncommon for illegal harvest to occur. In early 1997 a federal permit was applied for to export three metric tons of paddlefish roe from Kentucky to Japan. At approximately $70 per pound, this harvest would be valued at nearly $500,000. Biologists estimate that such a harvest would require the sacrifice of nearly 1,000 females and because sexes are not easy to differentiate, all captured fish are usually killed. It is not uncommon for commercial fishermen to sacrifice 4-5 males for each female with eggs. This scenario could easily account for 5,000-6,000 individuals being killed under a three metric ton permit (Rasmussen and Graham 1998). Egg shipments of this magnitude could significantly impact already imperiled populations.

Paddlefish are already protected under CITES Appendix II placing strict controls on international trade. However, as paddlefish eggs are often mixed with the more popular European and Asian caviars the listing of all sturgeon species by CITES Appendix II in April of 1998 is expected to increase the pressure for legal and illegal harvest of paddlefish (Graham and Rasmussen 1998). To a lesser degree overfishing by commercial and sport fishermen have adversely affected populations (see Graham 1997). The sport fishery catch by snagging in many rivers and reservoirs is substantial (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Currently six states allow commercial harvest and 14 states allow sport harvest. Sport harvest is regulated in some states through quotas, length limits, creel limits, or protected zones (Graham 1997, Graham and Rasmussen 1998).

Paddlefish are potentially threatened by the loss of genetic integrity due to releases of inbred hatchery stock, individuals from populations from other portions of the range, and hybrids raised for aquaculture [triploids?] (Tom Stefanavage, pers. comm., 1998).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but distribution and abundance probably have been relatively stable or slowly declining. Graham (1997) reported that populations are increasing in 3 states, stable in 14, declining in 2, unknown in 3, and extirpated in 4. Three generations span at least 3-4 decades.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Severe declines have occurred in the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Red rivers since the turn of the century (Smith 1979, Trautman 1981, Cooper 1983, Burr and Warren 1986, Pflieger 1997), while notable increases have been documented in the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Arkansas rivers (Gengerke 1986, Wallus 1986, Etnier and Starnes 1993). However, paddlefish have all but disappeared from the Tennessee River in Alabama (Hoxmeier and DeVries 1996, Mettee et al. 1996), and Robison and Buchanan (1988) reported a decrease in abundance and distribution in Arkansas. Many states have implemented stocking programs to supplement existing stocks or recover historical populations (e.g., see Pflieger 1997).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine the current number of populations and abundance. Monitor populations to determine long term trends and effect of stocking programs.

Protection Needs: Prevent spawning habitat destruction, and limit the number of dams that prevent migratory movements. Prevent overharvest.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Mississippi River basin from southwestern New York to central Montana and south to Louisiana; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Basin, Alabama (primarily below the Fall Line; Mettee et al. 1996), to Galveston Bay, Texas (Page and Burr 2011). The historical range included occurrences in Canada in Lake Huron and Lake Helen and in 26-27 states in the United States (Parker 1988, Graham 1997).

This species is extirpated in Canada, there have been no Canadian records since the early 1900s (Parker 1988). However, Canada never was a significant part of the distribution (highly peripheral).

In the United States, the species has been extirpated from five states: Maryland, Michigan, New York (known from only a single, old, apparently flood-related record; Smith 1985), North Carolina (known from an 1800s report for the French Broad River), and Pennsylvania (Graham 1997, Michigan Natural Heritage Program). Again, except Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983), these peripheral areas never represented a significant part of the range. Paddlefish also are extirpated in the Great Lakes basin (around 1900; known with certainty only from Lake Erie); Galveston Bay and the Sabine River drainages, Texas; Calcasieu drainage, Louisiana; Okoboji and Spirit Lakes and the upper Des Moines River, Iowa; Reelfoot, Dale Hollow, and J.P. Priest Lakes, Tennessee; above Prairie du Sac Dam on the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin; and above Thurlow Dam on the Tallapoosa River and above the Jordan Dam on the Coosa River, Alabama (Gengerke 1986).

Successful reproduction in the lower Black River, Wisconsin, in 1989 and 1991 was the first indication of such by paddlefish at the northern end of the range in the central United States (Jennings and Wilson 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MIextirpated, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NYextirpated, OH, OK, PAextirpated, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada ONextirpated

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Autauga (01001), Baldwin (01003)*, Choctaw (01023), Clarke (01025), Dallas (01047), Elmore (01051)*, Greene (01063), Lauderdale (01077)*, Limestone (01083)*, Lowndes (01085), Macon (01087)*, Monroe (01099)*, Sumter (01119), Tallapoosa (01123)*, Tuscaloosa (01125)*, Walker (01127)*, Washington (01129), Wilcox (01131)*
AR Arkansas (05001), Ashley (05003), Crawford (05033)*, Desha (05041), Miller (05091), Mississippi (05093)*, Monroe (05095), Pulaski (05119), Sebastian (05131)*, Union (05139)
IN Martin (18101)
LA Acadia (22001), Avoyelles (22009)*, Caddo (22017)*, Calcasieu (22019), Cameron (22023), Catahoula (22025), Concordia (22029), Evangeline (22039)*, Franklin (22041)*, Iberia (22045), Iberville (22047), Jefferson (22051)*, Jefferson Davis (22053), La Salle (22059)*, Orleans (22071), Ouachita (22073)*, Rapides (22079), Sabine (22085), St. Charles (22089)*, St. John the Baptist (22095)*, St. Landry (22097), St. Martin (22099), St. Mary (22101), St. Tammany (22103), Tangipahoa (22105)*, Tensas (22107)*, Union (22111)*
MN Blue Earth (27013), Brown (27015), Chippewa (27023), Dakota (27037), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055), Le Sueur (27079), Nicollet (27103), Ramsey (27123), Renville (27129), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169), Yellow Medicine (27173)
MO Andrew (29003), Atchison (29005), Boone (29019), Callaway (29027), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carroll (29033), Chariton (29041), Cole (29051), Cooper (29053), Franklin (29071), Gasconade (29073), Holt (29087), Howard (29089), Jackson (29095), Jefferson (29099), Lincoln (29113), Livingston (29117)*, Macon (29121), Miller (29131), Mississippi (29133), Moniteau (29135), Montgomery (29139), New Madrid (29143), Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Pike (29163), Ralls (29173), Ray (29177), Saline (29195), Scott (29201), Shannon (29203), St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510), Warren (29219), Wayne (29223)
MS Bolivar (28011), Carroll (28015)*, Claiborne (28021)*, Coahoma (28027), Grenada (28043)*, Hancock (28045)*, Hinds (28049), Holmes (28051), Humphreys (28053), Leflore (28083), Lowndes (28087), Madison (28089), Monroe (28095), Panola (28107), Pearl River (28109), Rankin (28121), Sunflower (28133), Tallahatchie (28135)*, Tishomingo (28141), Tunica (28143), Warren (28149)*, Washington (28151)
MT Blaine (30005), Chouteau (30015), Custer (30017), Dawson (30021), Fergus (30027), Garfield (30033), Hill (30041), Liberty (30051), McCone (30055), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Prairie (30079), Richland (30083), Roosevelt (30085), Rosebud (30087), Valley (30105), Wibaux (30109)
NC Buncombe (37021), Henderson (37089)*, Madison (37115)*, Transylvania (37175)*
ND Burleigh (38015), Emmons (38029), McKenzie (38053), McLean (38055), Mercer (38057), Morton (38059)*, Mountrail (38061), Sioux (38085)*, Williams (38105)
NE Burt (31021), Butler (31023), Cass (31025), Cedar (31027), Dakota (31043), Dixon (31051), Douglas (31055), Knox (31107), Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Platte (31141), Richardson (31147), Sarpy (31153), Thurston (31173), Washington (31177)
OH Adams (39001)*, Belmont (39013), Clermont (39025), Franklin (39049), Lawrence (39087)*, Pickaway (39129), Pike (39131)*, Summit (39153), Warren (39165), Washington (39167)*
OK McCurtain (40089)
PA Armstrong (42005)*, Indiana (42063)*, Westmoreland (42129)*
TN Lauderdale (47097), Tipton (47167)
VA Scott (51169)*
WI Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Dunn (55033), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049), La Crosse (55063), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Sauk (55111), St. Croix (55109), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123)
WV Braxton (54007)*, Brooke (54009), Gilmer (54021)*, Kanawha (54039)*, Mason (54053), Mingo (54059), Ohio (54069), Putnam (54079), Wetzel (54103), Wyoming (54109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Flint (03130008), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110)+, Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Cahaba (03150202)+, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Lower Alabama (03150204)+, Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109)+, Upper Black Warrior (03160112)+, Lower Black Warrior (03160113)+, Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201)+, Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+, Mobile Bay (03160205), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)*, Lake Erie (04120200)*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)*, Conewango (05010002)*, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)*, Kiskiminetas (05010008)+*, Lower Allegheny (05010009), Upper Ohio (05030101), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+*, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Elk (05050007)+*, Lower Kanawha (05050008)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Guyandotte (05070101)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Upper Kentucky (05100204)*, Lower Kentucky (05100205), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Twin Cities (07010206)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Le Sueur (07020011)+*, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Castle Rock (07070003)+*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Lower Iowa (07080209)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), The Sny (07110004)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Lower Hatchie (08010208)+, Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301)+, Cache (08020302)+, Lower White (08020303)+, Lower Arkansas (08020401)+, Bayou Meto (08020402)+, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Tallahatchie (08030202)+*, Coldwater (08030204)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+*, Upper Yazoo (08030206)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+, Lower Yazoo (08030208)+*, Deer-Steele (08030209)+, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202)+, Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206)+, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Lower Red (08040301)+, Little (08040304)+, Black (08040305)+, Bayou Cocodrie (08040306)+*, Boeuf (08050001)+, Bayou Macon (08050002)+, Tensas (08050003)+*, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+, Lower Big Black (08060202)+, Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204)+*, Tangipahoa (08070205)+*, Atchafalaya (08080101)+, Bayou Teche (08080102)+, Vermilion (08080103)+, Mermentau Headwaters (08080201)+, Mermentau (08080202)+, Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+, West Fork Calcasieu (08080205)+*, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)+*, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+, Lake Pontchartrain (08090202)+, Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203)+, East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301)+*
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Marias (10030203)+, Teton (10030205)+, Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Arrow (10040102)+, Judith (10040103)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Big Dry (10040105)+, Lower Musselshell (10040205)+, Lower Milk (10050012)+, Porcupine (10050016)+, Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001)+, Redwater (10060002)+, Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Lower Tongue (10090102)+, Lower Powder (10090209)+, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+, Rosebud (10100003)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, O'fallon (10100005)+, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)+, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+, Lower Cannonball (10130206)+*, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Little Sioux (10230003)*, Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Platte (10240012), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Grand (10280101), Lower Grand (10280103)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Marmaton (10290104)*, Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111)+, Lower Gasconade (10290203)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lamine (10300103)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009)*, Upper White-Village (11010013), Kaw Lake (11060001), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Fourche La Fave (11110206)*, Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207)+, Lake Texoma (11130210), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+, Lower Sulphur (11140302)+, Cross Bayou (11140304)+*, Caddo Lake (11140306)+
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004)+, Middle Neches (12020002), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A large fish (paddlefish).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in early spring during high water at temperatures of about 10-15 C (e.g., Wallus 1986). Males sexually mature in about 7 years, females in 9-10 years (but this varies with latitude, with spawning in the south at younger ages than in the north; Lein and DeVries 1998). Individuals probably do not spawn every year. Eggs hatch in about 9 days. Larvae may be found April-June at 12-18 C. Typical life expectancy is about 15 years (see Burkhead and Jenkins 1991) but some live 30 years or more. Spawns gregariously.
Ecology Comments: Walleye and sauger can be significant predators on young paddlefish in reservoirs (Mero et al. 1994).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: In Missouri, individuals migrated as much as 55 miles (88 km) upstream to spawn (Purkett 1961). In the absence of barriers, individuals may move 200 miles upstream to spawn (USFWS Southwest Region, Division of Fisheries). Radio-tagged young stocked in a Texas reservoir (Neches River system) moved up to 270 km upstream and up to 161 km downstream; several moved through reservoir floodgates or over the spillway into areas below the reservoir (Pitman and Parks 1994). In the upper Mississippi River (Pool 13), over a period of one year, maximum activity range length was 92 km for 32 adults (Moen et al. 1992).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes slow-flowing water of large and medium-sized rivers, river-margin lakes, channels, oxbows, backwaters, impoundments with access to spawning areas. This fish prefers depths greater than 1.5 m; it seeks deeper water in late fall and winter (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Individuals may congregate near human-made structures that create eddies and reduce current velocity (Southall and Hubert 1984). In summer, in the unimpounded, unchannelized Missouri River in South Dakota-Nebraska, paddlefish are most often found in areas downstream from submerged sandbars (Rosen et al. 1982). Spawning occurs in fast shallow water over gravel bars, including significant tailwater sections below upstream impoundments (e.g., Stancill et al. 2002). Larvae may drift from reservoir to reservoir (Wallus 1986).

See Crance (1987) for habitat suitability index curves.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly zooplankton filtered from water; sometimes also invertebrates found near the bottom and fishes. Stomachs sometimes contain significant amounts of algae and various plant fragments (Becker 1983).
Length: 150 centimeters
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Paddlefish roe makes excellent caviar. As of 1997, sport harvests occurred in 14 states, and commercial fisheries were operational in 6 states (Graham 1997).
Management Summary
Help
Management Requirements: Since 1994, over 1 million hatchery-reared juveniles have been tagged and released to enhance stocks throughout the Mississippi River basin and in several large rivers in Texas (Graham and Rasmussen 1998).

To address concerns about predation on hatchery-reared age-0 paddlefish, state agencies should consider stocking larger paddlefish where high densities of sauger or large walleyes are present (Parken and Scarnecchia 2002).

See Scanecchia et al. (1989) for rationale for a harvest slot limit for paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River.

Monitoring Requirements: Since 1995, 22 participating states have coded-wire tagged over 6,395 adult wild paddlefish to assess their abundance and migration patterns in the Mississippi River basin.

See Fredericks and Scarnecchia (1997) for information on using surface visual counts for estimating relative abundance of age-0 paddlefish.

Biological Research Needs: Determine spawning frequency and locations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Map as a single continuous occurrence all aquatic habitat between all point locations within an occupied river and its major tributaries, except do not include in the occurrence any habitat between a point location and a barrier.
Separation Barriers: Upland habitat. Dams and waterfalls may be barriers on the upstream end of an occurrence but not necessarily on the downstream end.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Generally each major occupied river should be treated as a single occurrence, unless there is a barrier across which movement appears to be absent or negligible. If available, information on the movements or recapture locations of tagged individuals should be used to determine the boundaries of an occurrence. In the absence of adequate data, the best professional judgment of regional fish biologists may be used to delineate occurrences.
Separation Justification: In the absence of barriers, individuals may move 200 miles upstream to spawn (USFWS Southwest Region, Division of Fisheries). In the upper Mississippi River, maximum length of activity range for 32 adults was 92 km (movement was downstream) (Moen et al. 1992). Young have moved up to at least 270 km upstream and up to at least 161 km downstream from stocking locations (Pitman and Parks 1994). Young can move through reservoir floodgates or over spillways into areas below a reservoir (Pitman and Parks 1994). Inter-reservoir transport of larvae may occur (Wallus 1986).

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 14Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Aug2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., M. K. Clausen, and R. Jennings
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Aug2012
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Boone, E. A., Jr., and T. J. Timmons. 1995. Density and natural mortality of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in an unfished Cumberland River subimpoundment, South Cross Creek Reservoir, Tennessee. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10:421-431.

  • Burkhead, N. M., and R. E. Jenkins. 1991. Fishes. Pages 321-409 in K. Terwilliger (coordinator). Virginia's Endangered Species: Proceedings of a Symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • Carlson, D. M. and P. S. Bronislawsky. 1981. The paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fisheries of the midwestern United States. Fisheries 6(2):17-22, 26-27.

  • Carlson, D. M., M. K. Kettler, S. E. Fisher, and G. S. Whitt. 1982. Low genetic variability in paddlefish populations. Copeia 1982:721-725.

  • Cox, U. O. 1897. A preliminary report on the fishes of Minnesota. Geological Natural History Survey Minnesota, Zoological Series III:1-93.

  • Crance, J. H. 1987. Habitat suitability index curves for paddlefish, developed by the Delphi technique. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7:123-130.

  • Dillard, J. G., L. K. Graham, and T. R. Russell, editors. 1986. The paddlefish: status, management and propagation. American Fisheries Society, North Central Division, Bethesda, Maryland. Special Publication 7.

  • Fredericks, J. P., and D. L. Scarnecchia. 1997. Use of surface visual counts for estimating relative abundance of age-0 paddlefish in Lake Sakakawea. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17:1014-1018.

  • Gengerke, T. A. 1986. Distribution and abundance of paddlefish in the United States. Pages 22-35 in J. G. Dillard, L. K. Graham, and T. R. Russell, editors. The Paddlefish: Status, Management and Propagation, North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication Number 7.

  • Graham, K. 1997. Contemporary status of the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48: 279-289.

  • Graham, K., and J. L. Rasmussen. 1998. A MICRA perspective on closing paddlefish and sturgeon commercial fisheries. A paper presented at the Symposium on the Harvest Trade and Conservation of North American Paddlefish and Sturgeon in Chattanooga, Tennessee. May 7-8, 1998.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Hesse, L. W., and J. R. Carreiro. 1997. The status of paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and shovelnose sturgeon. Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA), Bettendorf, Iowa. 52722-0774. 52 pp.

  • Hoxmeier, R.J.H., and D. R. DeVries. 1996. Status of paddlefish in the Alabama waters of the Tennessee River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16:935-938.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Jennings, C. A., and D. M. Wilson. 1993. Spawning activity of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in the lower Black River, Wisconsin. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8:261-262.

  • Lein, G. M., and D. R. DeVries. 1998. Paddlefish in the Alabama River drainage: population characteristics and the adult spawning migration. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:441-454.

  • Mero, S. W., D. W. Willis, and G. J. Power. 1994. Walleye and sauger predation on paddlefish in Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14:226-227.

  • Moen, C. T., D. L. Scarnecchia, and J. S. Ramsey. 1992. Paddlefish movements and habitat use in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River during abnormally low river stages and discharges. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12:744-751.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Parken, C. K., and D. L. Scarnecchia. 2002. Predation on age-0 paddlefish by walleye and sauger in a Great Plains reservoir. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:750-759.

  • Parker, B. J. 1988. Status of the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102(2): 291-295.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1997a. The fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. vi + 372 pp.

  • Pitman, V. M., and J. O. Parks. 1994. Habitat use and movement of young paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9:181-190.

  • Purkett, C. A. 1961. Reproduction and early development of paddlefish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 90: 125-129.

  • Purkett, C.A., Jr. 1961. Reproduction and early development of the paddlefish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 90:125-129.

  • Rasmussen, J. L., and L. K. Graham. 1998. Paddlefish and the world caviar trade. Endangered Species Bulletin 23(1):14-16.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Robinson, J. W. 1967. Observations on the life history, movement and harvest of the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in Montana. Proceedings of the Montana Academcy of Sciences 26: 33-44.

  • Rosen, R. A. and D. C. Hales. 1981. Feeding of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. Copeia 1981(2):441-455.

  • Rosen, R. A., D. C. Hales, and D. G. Unkenholz. 1982. Biology and exploitation of paddlefish in the Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 111:216-222.

  • Scarnecchia, D. L., T. W. Gengerke, and C. T. Moen. 1989. Rationale for a harvest slot limit for paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:477-487.

  • Schmidt, K. 1995. The distribution and status of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Minnesota. North American Native Fishes Association. 22 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P., and N. Proulx. 2009. Status and critical habitat of rare fish species in the Mississippi River from the Coon Rapids Dam to the Iowa border. Final report submitted to the State Wildlife Grants Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 29 pp.

  • Southall, P. D., and W. A. Hubert. 1984. Habitat use by paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113:125-131.

  • Sparrowe, R. D. 1986. Threats to Paddlefish habitat. Pages 36-45 in J. G. Dillard, L. K. Graham, and T. R. Russell, editors. The Paddlefish: status, management and propagation. North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication Number 7.

  • Sparrowe, R. D. 1986. Threats to paddlefish habitat. Pages 36-45 in J. G. Dillard, L. K. Graham, and T. R. Russell, editors. The Paddlefish: Status, Management and Propagation, North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication Number 7.

  • Stancill, W., G. R. Jordan, and C. P. Paukert. 2002. Seasonal migration patterns and site fidelity of adult paddlefish in Lake Francis Case, Missouri River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:815-824.

  • Starnes, W. C. 1995. Taxonomic validation for fish species on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2 species list. 28 pp.

  • Stockard, C. R. 1907. Observations on the natural history of Polyodon spathula. American Naturalist 41: 753-766.

  • Unkenholz, D. G. 1986. Effects of dams and other habitat alterations on Paddlefish sport fisheries. Pages 54-61 in J. G. Dillard, L. K. Graham, and T. R. Russell, editors. The Paddlefish: status, management and propagation. North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication Number 7.

  • Wallus, R. 1986. Paddlefish reproduction in the Cumberlandand Tennessee river systems. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115:424-428.

  • Wilkinson, T. 1997. Plight of the paddlefish. Wildlife Conservation, March/April, pp. 52-55.

  • Zigler, S. J., M. R. Dewey, B. C. Knights, A. L. Runstrom, and M. T. Steingraeber. 2003. Movement and habitat use by radio-tagged paddlefish in the upper Mississippi River and tributaries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:189-205.

  • Zigler, S. J., M. R. Dewey, B. C. Knights, A. L. Runstrom, and M. T. Steingraeber. 2004. Hydrologic and hydraulic factors affecting passage of paddlefish through dams in the upper Mississippi River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133:160-172.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Straight, C.A., B. Albanese, and B.J. Freeman. [Internet]. [updated 2009 March 25]. Fishes of Georgia Website, Georgia Museum of Natural History; Accessed May 2010. Online. Available from: http://fishesofgeorgia.uga.edu

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.