Polygonella macrophylla - Small
Largeleaf Jointweed
Other Common Names: largeleaf jointweed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polygonella macrophylla Small (TSN 21312)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137605
Element Code: PDPGN0K060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buckwheat Family
Image 10433

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygonales Polygonaceae Polygonella
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polygonella macrophylla
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species. Largest member of genus Polygonella. Red and white flowered populations disjunct in panhandle (Lewis 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jun2001
Global Status Last Changed: 12Jun2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: A narrow Florida endemic that can be frequent in the scrub within its range. Its habitat is diminishing due to development pressure. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database contains 150 occurrence records from the coast of the western Florida panhandle.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Baldwin County, Alabama and in Florida east to Bay County (white flowered form). A red-flowered form is disjunct in Franklin County, Florida.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Over 150 known occurrences (as of 10/97).

Population Size Comments: Can be locally frequent in scrub within range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The major threat to this plant is destruction of habitat for development.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Baldwin County, Alabama and in Florida east to Bay County (white flowered form). A red-flowered form is disjunct in Franklin County, Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003)
FL Bay (12005), Escambia (12033), Franklin (12037), Okaloosa (12091), Santa Rosa (12113), Walton (12131)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 New (03130013)+, Apalachicola Bay (03130014)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Perdido Bay (03140107)+, Mobile Bay (03160205)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A slender perennial with a woody base and herbaceous stems, growing to 1 m in height. Leaves are numerous, alternate, ascending or erect, the largest located lowest on the stems. Flowers are bright to dark red. Blooms in the fall (Ward 1979).
Technical Description: Subshrub with one to several shoots stiffly erect from a strong taproot, to more than a meter tall, glabrous, round in cross section, but finely ribbed, reddish-brown to gray-green, simple or with short erectish leafy lateral branches and branching in the inflorescence. Leaves numerous, alterante, ascending or erect, the lowest largest, mostly obovate, cuneate or broadly spatulate, mostly 2.5-6.0 cm long, 1.0-2.5 cm broad, flat, rather leathery, the tips rounded, the margins entire, often pale, the base cuneate, sessile or nearly so. Ocreae short-cylindric, firm, dark to pale brown, entire. Stem leaves gradually reduced in size upward, grading into bracts. Inflorescence a dense to somewhat open system of ascending or spreading sessile racemes (sometimes branched), these short-oblong or ovate in outline, with broadly funnelform, overlapping ocreolae. Flowers mostly bisexual, on slender stalks projecting from the ocreolae, terminating in a narrow perianth tube that gradually expands upward, then flares into the 5 calyx segments (the longest about 3.0-3.5 mm long); the three outer sepal lobes broadest, with short claws and broadly ovate or obovate to suborbicular blades which are white at blooming time; inner sepal longes narrower; all calyx lobes erect or slightly spreading in bloom, spreading or even reflexed in fruit; stamens 5, about as long as the sepals in bloom, the white filaments linear, some broader than others, the anthers white or yellow roundish; ovary lance-ovoid, trigonous, its tip producing 3 narrow district style branches and stigma buttoms. Fruit an achene, lance-ovate, strongly trigonous, about 3 mm long, pale yellow brown, smooth, lustrous (Kral, 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, mostly 8-20 mm wide; flowers dark red; achenes 1.5-1.8 mm wide; styles about 0.5 mm long at anthesis; perennial (Clewell, 1985).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Open, unshaded, deep, white sands of sand pine-oak or rosemary scrub ridges and dunes near the coast (but not found on barrier islands).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Jun1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D. & rev. A. Johnson & D. White
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Mar1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Johnson, A.F. 1993. Status survey of Polygonella macrophylla. Under grant agreement No. 14-16-0004-92-986 between the Florida Natural Areas Inventory and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, Florida.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • LEWIS, PAUL O. 1991. ALLOZYME VARIATION IN THE RARE GULF COAST ENDEMIC POLYGONELLA MACROPHYLLA SMALL (POLYGONACEAE). PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY 6: 1-10.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Two volumes. Hafner Publishing Company, New York.

  • U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1980. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS; REVIEW OF PLANT TAXA FOR LISTING AS ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES. FEDERAL REGISTER 15 DECEMBER 1980 PART IV.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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