Polygala smallii - R.R. Sm. & Ward
Tiny Polygala
Other English Common Names: Tiny Milkwort
Other Common Names: tiny milkwort
Synonym(s): Polygala arenicola Small
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polygala smallii R.R. Sm. & Ward (TSN 29318)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.150145
Element Code: PDPGL021P0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Milkwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygalales Polygalaceae Polygala
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polygala smallii
Taxonomic Comments: Polygala arenicola Small is a synonym, not the same as Polygala arenicola Guerke (see Kartesz, 1994 checklist). Distinct species; relegated to P. nana by Long and Lakela (1971) but see FCREPA (Ward 1979).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Jul1996
Global Status Last Changed: 13Apr1984
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Narrowly endemic to the southern portion of Florida's Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database currently contains 10 occurrence records. This species is rapidly being destroyed by conversion of its habitat to commercial and residential developments.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (18Jul1985)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida - near coast. Specimen collected by Poponoe in Collier should be checked for ID.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Eleven known occurrences as of 7/96.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Rate of development very rapid in this urban area and this upland habitat highly vulnerable.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Requires fire or other means of keeping down competition.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida - near coast. Specimen collected by Poponoe in Collier should be checked for ID.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Broward (12011), Martin (12085), Miami-Dade (12086), Palm Beach (12099), St. Lucie (12111)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A biennial herb, 2-4 cm tall with 1-4 slender, short, erect stems from a taproot. Each stem ends in a dense cluster of flowers. Leaves are closely spaced, 2-3.5 cm long. Flowers are numerous and green to yellowish-green in color. (Based on Ward 1979.)
Technical Description: Biennial, at times as short as 2 cm or extending to 4 cm or a little more. Stems 1 (usually)-4 slender, short, erect from a taproot. Leaves closely spaced, forming an irregular rosette, entire, spatulate, 2-3.5 cm in length, and often extended beyond the tip of the inflorescence. Each stem ends in a dense, short-cylindric raceme about 1-1.5 cm long and 0.8-1.2 cm thick. Flowers numerous and green to yellowish-green, drying to the same color. Two lateral same color. Two lateral sepals petaloid, 5-8 mm long, projecting prominently from the sides of the flower. Two upper and 1 lower petal present; lateral petals fused to the lower petal but not to each other; one overlaps the other to form a floral tube. Lower petal, or keel, ca. 4 mm long with a crest with bifurcating lobes on its outer surface. Each ovary produces 2 seeds that are oblong, pilose, and 1.9-2.3 mm long (Ward, 1978).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Polygala smallii may be distinguished from the closely related species P. nana by its more lanceolate leaves, flowers greener at anthesis and a greater seed length (1.2 mm or more in P. smallii; 0.8 mm or less in P. nana). The two species are reported to be 32 miles apart at the most proximate point, P. smallii being isolated on the slightly drier south Florida rocklands (Unpublished material in TNC files).
Duration: BIENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Genus contains ant dispersed species.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest/Woodland, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Open grassy pineland; sandy pine rockland, scrubby flatwoods, and sandhill. Often in disturbed areas.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Jun1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cooper, S.T. & E.D. Hardin, rev. by A.F. Johnson (1996)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Jul1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Institute for Regional Conservation. 1995. Endangered Species Status Survey: Polygala smallii (Tiny polygala).

  • Institute for Regional Conservation. 1995. Endangered Species Status Survey: Polygala smallii (Tiny polygala).

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • SMITH, ROBERT R. AND D.B. WARD. 1976. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS POLYGALA SERIES DECURRENTES (POLYGALOCEAE). SIDA 6:284-310.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. No date. Endangered and threatened species of the southeastern U.S. Region 4. Atlanta, GA.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B. (ed.). 1978. Rare and endangered biota of Florida, vol. 5: plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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